Physics

Physics is the study of science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force through time and space. 
Physics in nanotechnology embodies segments such as quantum computing, laser technology, photonics as some examples.

  • Combining the Benefits of 3D Printing and Casting

    In additive freeform molding, the shell of a part is constructed using FDM printing. A dosing unit in the printer then fills this with a two-component mixture. Fraunhofer IPA/Rainer Bez

     

    Researchers at Fraunhofer IPA have developed a new process that combines 3D printing and casting. In additive freeform casting (AFFC), first a shell of the part is manufactured using FLM printing, then this shell is filled with a two-component resin. This saves time, increases stability of the part and allows new materials to be printed.

  • Complex Tessellations, Extraordinary Materials

    So-called Archimedean tessellations are often associated with very special properties, for example unusual electrical conductivity, special light reflectivity or extreme mechanical strength. Klappenberger and Zhang / TUM

    An international team of researchers lead by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has discovered a reaction path that produces exotic layers with semiregular structures. These kinds of materials are interesting because they frequently possess extraordinary properties. In the process, simple organic molecules are converted to larger units which form the complex, semiregular patterns.

  • Computersimulation enthüllt neue Seite der Kavitation

    Eine bisher unbekannte Entstehungsweise von Kavitationsblasen haben Forscher mit Hilfe einer Modellrechnung entdeckt. In der Fachzeitschrift Science Advances beschreiben sie, wie Öl-abstoßende und Öl-anziehende Oberflächen auf einen vorbeiströmenden Ölfilm wirken. Je nach Viskosität des Öls bildet sich am Übergang eine Dampfblase. Diese sogenannte Kavitation kann Material schädigen etwa bei Schiffsschrauben oder Pumpen. Sie kann aber auch einen positiven Effekt haben, in dem sie für Abstand zwischen Bauteilen sorgt und damit Schädigung vermeidet. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501585

  • Concepts for new Switchable Plasmonic Nanodivices

    Configuration of a switchable plasmonic router consisting of a T-shaped metallic waveguide surrounded by a ferromagnetic dielectric material and under the action of an external magnetic field. Fig. MBI

     

    Plasmonic waveguides open the possibility to develop dramatically miniaturized optical devices and provide a promising route towards the next-generation of integrated nanophotonic circuits for information processing, optical computing and others. Key elements of nanophotonic circuits are switchable plasmonic routers and plasmonic modulators.

  • Construction Set of Magnon Logic Extended: Magnon Spin Currents Controlled Via Spin Valve Structure

    Depending on the magnetic configuration of the spin valve, the electrical signal is transmitted (bottom) or suppressed (top). ill./©: Joel Cramer

    Magnon spintronics employs magnons instead of electrical charges for information processing. In the emerging field of magnon spintronics, researchers investigate the possibility to transport and process information by means of so-called magnon spin currents. In contrast to electrical currents, on which todays information technology is based, magnon spin currents do not conduct electrical charges but magnetic momenta.

  • Controlled Coupling of Light and Matter

    Artistic representation of a plasmonic nano-resonator realized by a narrow slit in a gold layer. Upon approaching the quantum dot (red) to the slit opening the coupling strength increases. Image: Heiko Groß

    Publishing in a journal like Science Advances usually heralds a particularly exciting innovation. Now, physicists from the Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU) in Germany and Imperial College London in the UK are reporting controlled coupling of light and matter at room temperature. This achievement is particularly significant as it builds the foundations for a realization of practical photonic quantum technologies.

  • Controlling Quantum States Atom by Atom

    Controlling Quantum States Atom by Atom | Using the tip of a scanning tunnel microscope, a single xenon atom (yellow) is being moved from a quantum box (blue), thus specifically altering its electronic quantum state. (Image: University of Basel, Department of Physics)

    An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small.

  • Controlling Thermal and Particle Currents by Quantum Observation

    Artistic illustration of the role of a quantum observer in a nanodevice. © K. Aranburu

    Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. Measurement plays a fundamental role in quantum mechanics. At the same time, it also constitutes one of the main problems regarding the interpretation of this whole field. The best-known illustration of the principles of superposition and entanglement is Schrödinger’s cat. Not being visible from the outside, the cat resides in a coherent superposition of two states: it is alive and dead at the same time.

  • Converts One-third of the Sunlight into Electricity: 33.3 % Silicon-based Multi-junction Solar Cell

    Silicon-based multi-junction solar cell consisting of III-V semiconductors and silicon. The record cell converts 33.3. percent of the incident sunlight into electricity. © Fraunhofer ISE/Photo: Dirk Mahler

    Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with the company EV Group (EVG) have developed a new silicon-based multi-junction solar cell, which can convert exactly one-third of the incident sunlight into useful electricity. This newest result is now published in the renowned scientific magazine Nature Energy.

  • Conveyor Technology: Moving Large Quantities of Small Goods Using Muscles Made of Silicone Polymer

    Prof. Stefan Seelecke (l.) and Steffen Hau will be exhibiting a model of their vibrating conveyor system at Hannover Messe. Credit: Oliver Dietze

    Using artificial-muscle actuators, Stefan Seelecke and his team of engineers at Saarland University have developed a new self-optimizing conveyor technology that adapts itself to the size, weight and desired speed of the materials being conveyed. The technology makes use of silicone polymer-based artificial muscles to transport dry bulk materials of all kinds, from foodstuffs to small metal components. By exploiting the properties of electromechanically active polymers, the Saarbrücken research team has built an actuator that they install at intervals below the conveyor belt.

  • Copper Compound as Promising Quantum Computing Unit

    Jena doctoral student Benjamin Kintzel looks at a laboratory vessel containing crystals of a novel molecule that may possibly be used in a quantum computer. Photo: Jan-Peter Kasper/FSU

     

    Quantum computers could vastly increase the capabilities of IT systems, bringing major changes worldwide. However, there is still a long way to go before such a device can actually be constructed, because it has not yet been possible to transfer existing molecular concepts into technologies in a practical way. This has not kept researchers around the world away from developing and optimising new ideas for individual components. Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. They report on their work in the current issue of the research journal ‘Chemical Communications’.

  • Corrective glass for mass spectrometry imaging

    Custom-built laser source for mass spectrometry imaging: By means of the improved LAESI technique the surface of this coarse piece of savoy cabbage can now be chemically analyzed. Benjamin Bartels / Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology

    Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have now improved mass spectrometry imaging in such a way that the distribution of molecules can also be visualized on rippled, hairy, bulgy or coarse surfaces. The source of the laser-based technique was custom-built to accommodate the topography of non-flat samples. By employing a distances sensor, a height profile of the surface is recorded before the actual chemical imaging. The new tool can be used for answering ecological questions from a new perspective.

  • Cost efficient Diode Lasers for Industrial Applications

    The »Brilliant Industrial Diode Lasers« (BRIDLE) project has been finished successfully after 42 months of intense research activities. BRIDLE was made possible by funding from the European Commission. The seven project partners finished their work at the end of February 2016. The project was coordinated by »DILAS Diodenlaser GmbH« (Germany), the project partners are located in Germany, UK, Switzerland, France and Finland. BRIDLE targeted a major increase in the brightness achievable in direct diode laser systems, based on advances in diode laser and beam -combining technology. Throughout, the highest conversion was sought as was compatibility with low cost, volume manufacture.

  • Countdown to the space mission “Solar Orbiter”: Measuring instruments from Kiel start their voyage

    The three sensors from Kiel are ready for space: EPT-HET1 and 2 on the left, and STEP on the right. Photo/Copyright: Jürgen Haacks, CAU

    Around five years ago, a team led by a physicist from Kiel University, Professor Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, won the coveted tender for providing instruments to be placed on board the “Solar Orbiter” space probe. This joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the US space agency NASA is expected to launch in October 2018, and will go closer to the sun than has ever been done before. Now, exactly on schedule, the preparations in Kiel for this mission are entering their final phase. On Monday 21 November the flight instruments from Kiel will be handed over to the space probe installation team in England.

  • Coupling a Nano-trumpet With a Quantum Dot Enables Precise Position Determination

    Trumpet-shaped nanowires with a length of about 10 micrometers are coupled to quantum dots located at their bases. Grenoble Alps University

    Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in coupling an extremely small quantum dot with 1,000 times larger trumpet-shaped nanowire. The movement of the nanowire can be detected with a sensitivity of 100 femtometers via the wavelength of the light emitted by the quantum dot. Conversely, the oscillation of the nanowire can be influenced by excitation of the quantum dot with a laser. Nature Communications published the results.

  • Cryo-force Spectroscopy Reveals the Mechanical Properties of DNA Components

    At low temperatures, a DNA strand is removed from the gold surface using the tip of an atomic force microscope. In the process, physical parameters can be determined. Image: University of Basel, Department of Physics

    Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a new method to examine the elasticity and binding properties of DNA molecules on a surface at extremely low temperatures. With a combination of cryo-force spectroscopy and computer simulations, they were able to show that DNA molecules behave like a chain of small coil springs. The researchers reported their findings in Nature Communications.

  • Crystals for Superconduction, Quantum Computing and High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Crystals have applications in a wide variety of fields. Photo of a multicrystalline silicon wafer, which serves as the basis of a solar cell.  ©Fraunhofer ISE

    From March 8-10, 2017, an International Conference on Crystal Growth is to be held in Freiburg under the auspices of the German Association of Crystal Growth DGKK and the Swiss Society for Crystallography SGK-SSCR. The conference, jointly organized by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, the Crystallography department of the Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University Freiburg and the University of Geneva, is to be held in the seminar rooms of the Chemistry Faculty of the University of Freiburg. Furthermore, the Young DGKK will hold a seminar for young scientists at Fraunhofer ISE on March 7, 2017.

  • Data Storage Using Individual Molecules

    Graphic animation of a possible data memory on the atomic scale: A data storage element - consisting of only 6 xenon atoms - is liquefied by a voltage pulse. Universität Basel, Departement of Physics

    Researchers from the University of Basel have reported a new method that allows the physical state of just a few atoms or molecules within a network to be controlled. It is based on the spontaneous self-organization of molecules into extensive networks with pores about one nanometer in size. In the journal ‘small’, the physicists reported on their investigations, which could be of particular importance for the development of new storage devices.

  • Dauerbetrieb der Tokamaks rückt näher

    Aussichtsreiche Experimente in ASDEX Upgrade / Bedingungen für ITER und DEMO nahezu erfüllt

  • Decoupled Graphene Thanks to Potassium Bromide

    Potassium bromide molecules (pink) arrange themselves between the copper substrate (yellow) and the graphene layer (gray). This brings about electrical decoupling. © Department of Physics, University of Basel

    The use of potassium bromide in the production of graphene on a copper surface can lead to better results. When potassium bromide molecules arrange themselves between graphene and copper, it results in electronic decoupling. This alters the electrical properties of the graphene produced, bringing them closer to pure graphene, as reported by physicists from the universities of Basel, Modena and Munich in the journal ACS Nano.