Physics

Physics is the study of science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force through time and space. 
Physics in nanotechnology embodies segments such as quantum computing, laser technology, photonics as some examples.

  • Flexible Organic Electronics for Wearables

    Bracelet with flexible OLED © LYTEUS

    Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, a provider of research and development services in the field of organic electronics, presents first wearable OLED bracelet at Wearable Europe 2018, from April 11th to 12th in Berlin, Germany at booth no. P12 together with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Holst Centre from Netherlands.

  • Flow at the nanoscale: what stops a drop and keeps nanobubbles alive

    All of us have seen it: a raindrop running down the windowpane. It stops at a certain point, is met by a second raindrop and the two join up before continuing to run down the pane. Very small irregularities or dirt on the windowpane appear to stop the course of the raindrops. If the surface was entirely smooth and chemically clean, the raindrops would be able to flow unhindered. Surface defects such as small bumps and dimples as well as chemical contaminants stop the liquid drops.
    These are everyday phenomena everyone knows and can observe with the naked eye.

  • Flying Optical Cats for Quantum Communication

    An atom is trapped in the resonator between two mirrors (left). A reflected light pulse gets entangled with the atom and may fly freely as a superimposed cat state (right). Bastian Hacker, Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ)

    Dead and alive at the same time? Researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have implemented Erwin Schrödinger’s paradoxical gedanken experiment employing an entangled atom-light state. In 1935 Erwin Schrödinger formulated a thought experiment designed to capture the paradoxical nature of quantum physics. The crucial element of this gedanken experiment is a cat that is simultaneously dead and alive. Since Schrödinger proposed his ‘cat paradox’, physicists have been thinking about ways to create such superposition states experimentally.

  • Foldable Like an Accordion: International Research Team Bends Individual Nanostructures

    Materials scientists Yogendra Kumar Mishra and doctoral researcher Daria Smazna. Photo/credit: Siekmann/CAU

    Since a research group at Kiel University (CAU) and the Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH) in Hamburg-Harburg has developed aerographite – one of the most light weight materials in the world – in the year 2012 -, they have continued researching about it. Its complex tetrapodal architecture gives the carbon-based 3D material very unique properties, such as extremely high elasticity and electrical conductivity. Now, for the first time, as part of an international research team, materials scientists from the CAU were able to fold the individual hollow tetrapods, each measuring only a few micrometers in size.

  • Forscher entdecken neue chemische Verbindung

    Wissenschaftler der Universität Leipzig haben in Zusammenarbeit mit Kollegen der Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg und der Staatlichen Universität für Informationstechnologien, Mechanik und Optik (ITMO) in St. Petersburg eine ganz neue Eigenschaft einer chemischen Verbindungsklasse entdeckt. "Neben interessanten magnetischen Eigenschaften zeichnen sich Kristalle dieser Verbindung auch durch sogenannte Doppelbrechung aus", erklärt Prof. Dr. Evamarie Hey-Hawkins, Chemikerin der Universität Leipzig und Leiterin der Arbeitsgruppe. Ihre Forschungsergebnisse haben die Wissenschaftler in der renommierten Fachzeitschrift "Dalton Transactions" als Titelbeitrag veröffentlicht.

  • Fraunhofer IISB releases foxBMS, a universal, royalty free and fully open battery management system

    Fraunhofer IISB is proud to announce the launch of its first generation, free, open, and flexible battery management system, namely foxBMS. At the conference “Batterietagung 2016” (battery-power.eu) foxBMS will be presented publicly for the first time. Visit us at Batterietagung 2016 on April 25-27 in Muenster, Germany, at the Fraunhofer Battery Alliance stand (booth 18). foxBMS will also be on show at the Fraunhofer IISB stand at the PCIM Europe 2016 from May 10-12 in Nuremberg, Germany. Currently, a total of 15 renowned industrial and research organizations from 7 countries worldwide have been selected from a long list of volunteers to participate in an intensive beta testing program.

  • From the Lab on to the Ship: Environmentally-Friendly Removal of Biofouling

    Barnacles and muscles stuck to the ship’s hull can be brushed off easily from the new coating. The paintwork is not damaged. Photo/credit: Dr Martina Baum

    It is one of the shipping industry’s major problems: marine organisms like barnacles, algae or muscles quickly cover the hulls of ships and damage their paintwork. The so-called “biofouling” increases the ship’s weight and its flow resistance, causing greater fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Those protective paints that are used around the world contain and release pollutants. A research team at Kiel University and the Phi-Stone AG, one of its spin-offs located in Kiel, have closely cooperated to develop an environmentally-friendly coating. This coating makes it harder for marine organisms to grow on the hulls and makes cleaning the ships easier.

  • Fundamental properties of spin Seebeck effect unveiled

    Fundamental properties of spin Seebeck effect unveiled | Thermally excited spin waves carry a spin current from the ferromagnet (YIG in this case) into the metal layer. Depending on the YIG thickness and the interface condition the amplitude of the spin current as well as transmission properties change. illustraton: Joel Cramer, JGU

    Direct correlation between temperature dependent generation of spin currents and atomic composition of interfaces found

    Thermoelectric effects are a fundamental building block for the conception and development of new processes for information processing. They enable to re-use waste heat obtained in different processes for the operation of respective devices and thus contribute to the establishment of more energy-efficient, ecofriendly processes. A promising representative of this effect category is the so-called spin Seebeck effect, which became prominent within recent years. This effect allows to convert waste heat into spin currents and thereby to transport energy as well as information in magnetic, electrically insulating materials.

  • Further Improvement of Qubit Lifetime for Quantum Computers

    Illustration of the filtering of unwanted quasiparticles (red spheres) from a stream of superconducting electron pairs (blue spheres) using a microwave-driven pump. Philip Krantz, Krantz NanoArt

    New Technique Removes Quasiparticles from Superconducting Quantum Circuits - An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. An important prerequisite for the realization of high-performance quantum computers is that the stored data should remain intact for as long as possible. The researchers, including Jülich physicist Dr. Gianluigi Catelani, have developed and tested a technique that removes unpaired electrons from the circuits. These are known to shorten the qubit lifetime (to be published online by the journal Science today.

  • Future Work Lab makes Work 4.0 tangible

    Future Work Lab: Innovation laboratory for work, people and technology  Ludmilla Parsyak © Fraunhofer IAO

    Innovation laboratory for work, people and technology opens at Fraunhofer Campus in Stuttgart

    What is work becoming? In what directions is it developing? How can we best harness the potential of new technologies for our work? As digitalization transforms processes and services as well as factory floors, many new questions arise. The Future Work Lab, which was officially opened today, offers answers and innovative approaches to these issues.

  • Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

    Radio map of the relic at the outskirts of the galaxy cluster CIZA J2242+53 in a distance of about two billion light years, observed with the Effelberg radio telescope at 3 cm wavelength. Maja Kierdorf et al., 2017, A&A 600, A18

    Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

    The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

  • Glasbildung durch amorphe Ordnung

    Glasbildung durch amorphe Ordnung | Abbildung "Glasbildung auf molekularer Ebene": Die Temperatur- und Frequenzabhängigkeit der dielektrischen Suszeptibilität fünfter Ordnung, die die Reaktion des Materials - gemessen bei der fünften Oberwelle des angelegten Wechselfeldes - charakterisiert (Graph im Vordergrund), offenbart eine Vergrößerung von Regionen sich gemeinsam bewegender Moleküle beim Übergang von der Flüssigkeit (rechter Kreis) in das feste Glas (linker Kreis). Diese Regionen sind bei hohen Temperaturen in der viskosen Flüssigkeit klein, im festen Glas sind sie groß.

    In einem soeben erschienenen Beitrag im führenden naturwissenschaftlichen Fachjournal "Science" lösen Forscher der Universitäten Augsburg und Paris einen lang anhaltenden Streit über die wahre Natur des Übergangs von der Flüssigkeit in das feste Glas und bestätigen die Theorie, wonach es sich um einen - wenngleich unkonventionellen - Phasenübergang handelt.

  • Goettingen Researchers Combine Light and X-ray Microscopy for Comprehensive Insights

    STED image (left) and x-ray imaging (right) of the same cardiac tissue cell from a rat. University of Goettingen

    Researchers at the University of Goettingen have used a novel microscopy method. In doing so they were able to show both the illuminated and the "dark side" of the cell. The results of the study were published in the journal Nature Communications. (pug) The team led by Prof. Dr. Tim Salditt and Prof. Dr. Sarah Köster from the Institute of X-Ray Physics "attached" small fluorescent markers to the molecules of interest, for example proteins or DNA. The controlled switching of the fluorescent dye in the so-called STED (Stimulated Emission Depletion) microscope then enables highest resolution down to a few billionth of a meter.

  • Going green with nanotechnology

    Reducing the environmental impact of organic solar cell production, building more efficient energy storage: Würzburg-based research institutes have provided for progress in the Bavarian project association UMWELTnanoTECH. Below, we will present their outstanding results.

    Nanotechnology offers many chances to benefit the environment and health. It can be applied to save raw materials and energy, develop enhanced solar cells and more efficient rechargeable batteries and replace harmful substances with eco-compatible solutions.

  • Good Vibrations Feel the Force

    Strong-field mid-infrared excitation allows to drive lattice vibrations of a crystal into the highly anharmonic regime which allows to reconstruct the interatomic potential. Joerg Harms, MPSD

    A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

  • Goodbye, Silicon? On the Way to New Electronic Materials with Metal-organic Networks

    A metal-organic framework could serve as a replacement for the semiconductor silicon in the future. © MPI-P

    Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P) in Mainz (Germany) together with scientists from Dresden, Leipzig, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Madrid (Spain) have now developed and characterized a novel, metal-organic material which displays electrical properties mimicking those of highly crystalline silicon. The material which can easily be fabricated at room temperature could serve as a replacement for expensive conventional inorganic materials used in optoelectronics.

  • Graphene aids optical study of dye molecules

    Graphene aids optical study of dye molecules | Figure: Regular arrangements of dye molecules on graphene. Top: The particular dye molecule used in the study. Image reproduced from original publication.

    By using graphene as substrate, dye molecules self-assemble and form monolayers of high regularity. This increases their optical properties significantly.

  • Graphene Enables Clock Rates in the Terahertz Range

    Graphene converts electronic signals with frequencies in the gigahertz range extremely efficiently into signals with several times higher frequency. Juniks/HZDR

    Graphene is considered a promising candidate for the nanoelectronics of the future. In theory, it should allow clock rates up to a thousand times faster than today’s silicon-based electronics. Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and the University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE), in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P), have now shown for the first time that graphene can actually convert electronic signals with frequencies in the gigahertz range – which correspond to today’s clock rates – extremely efficiently into signals with several times higher frequency. The researchers present their results in the scientific journal “Nature”.

  • GSI Scientists Participate in Top 10 Discovery

    Nuclear clock based on a transition in the atomic nucleus of thorium-229. Copyright: Christoph Düllmann, JGU Mainz

    Scientists from GSI are participants in one of the ten most important discoveries of 2016. A publication by a team of researchers led by the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) and including scientists and engineers from GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), and the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) is among the most important breakthroughs in physics in 2016. The team’s work is featured as one of the “2016 Top Ten Breakthroughs of the Year” announced recently in Physics World — the magazine of the British Institute of Physics.

  • Gum metals pave the way for new applications

    Scanning electron microscopy image showing the different phases in the peculiar gum-type titanium alloy.  Jian Zhang, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH

    Max Planck scientists discover peculiarities in crystal structure of titanium alloy

    Metals which can be bent as gum pave the way for new industrial applications for example in the aerospace industry. These so-called gum metals exist but the mechanism behind this behaviour was still unsettled and thus difficult to be used for applications. Scientists from the Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung (MPIE) in Düsseldorf have observed a new phase transformation in a titanium alloy that could further our understanding of exactly this behaviour whereby the term “phase” refers to the crystal structure in which the atoms are arranged.