Physics

Physics is the study of science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force through time and space. 
Physics in nanotechnology embodies segments such as quantum computing, laser technology, photonics as some examples.

  • Die Quantenschaukel - ein Pendel das gleichzeitig vor und zurück schwingt

    Ultrakurze Terahertz-Impulse regen Zwei-Quanten-Oszillationen von Atomen in einem Halbleiterkristall an. Die von den bewegten Atomen abgestrahlten Terahertz-Wellen werden mittels einer neuen zeitaufgelösten Technik analysiert und zeigen den nicht-klassischen Charakter der Atombewegungen von großer Amplitude.

  • Die Vermessung der Chemie: Wasserstoffbrücken-Bindungen experimentell erfasst

    Ein Team aus dem Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin konnte nun erstmals messen, wie neue Verbindungen zwischen Molekülen diese beeinflussen: Sie haben aus Messdaten an der Swiss Lightsource des Paul-Scherrer-Instituts die „Energielandschaft“ von Azeton-Molekülen rekonstruiert und so experimentell den Aufbau von Wasserstoffbrücken zwischen Azeton- und Chloroform-Molekülen nachgewiesen. Die Ergebnisse sind in Nature Scientific Reports veröffentlicht und helfen, grundlegende Phänomene der Chemie zu verstehen.

  • Direct Coupling of the Higgs Boson to the Top Quark Observed

    CMS detector in a cavern 100 m underground at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. CERN

    An observation made by the CMS experiment at CERN unambiguously demonstrates the interaction of the Higgs boson and top quarks, which are the heaviest known subatomic particles. This major milestone is an important step forward in our understanding of the origins of mass. Physicists at the University of Zurich made central contributions by incorporating sophisticated data analysis methods that allowed this benchmark to be reached much earlier than expected.

  • DNA Origami: Building Virus-sized Structures and Saving Costs Through Mass Production

    Self-organization forms „gear-wheels“ from V-shaped building blocks, constructed using DNA origami techniques. In a next step, these gears form tubes with a size comparable with virus capsids. Hendrik Dietz / TUM

    It is the double strands of our genes that make them so strong. Using a technique known as DNA origami, biophysicist Hendrik Dietz has been building nanometer-scale objects for several years at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). Now Dietz and his team have not only broken out of the nanometer realm to build larger objects, but have also cut the production costs a thousand-fold. These innovations open a whole new frontier for the technology.

  • Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

    Printed thermoelectric module with flexible geometry Fraunhofer IWS Dresden

    The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

  • Dünnschicht-Solarzellen: Wie Defekte in CIGSe-Zellen entstehen und verschwinden

    Kupferanteil spielt entscheidende Rolle

    Eine internationale Kollaboration aus deutschen, israelischen und britischen Teams hat die Abscheidung von einzelnen Chalkopyrit-Dünnschichten untersucht. An der Röntgenquelle BESSY II des Helmholtz-Zentrums Berlin konnten sie beobachten, wann sich während der Deposition bestimmte Defekte bilden und unter welchen Umständen sie ausheilen. Die Ergebnisse geben Hinweise für die Optimierung der Herstellungsprozesse und sind nun in „Energy & Environmental Science“ publiziert.

  • Ears from the 3D-printer

    A 3D-printed ear: Empa researcher Michael Hausmann uses nanocellulose as the basis for novel implants. Empa

    Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing. It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains: «In viscous state cellulose nanocrystals can easily be shaped together with nother biopolymers into complex 3-dimensional structures using a 3D printer, such as the Bioplotter.” Once cross-linked, the structures remain stable despite their soft mechanical properties.

  • Easy Printing of Biosensors Made of Graphene

    Endless film with printed biosensors: Fraunhofer has developed a convenient roll-to-roll process. Fraunhofer IBMT

    Cell-based biosensors can simulate the effect of various substances, such as drugs, on the human body in the laboratory. Depending on the measuring principle, though, producing them can be expensive. As a result, they are often not used. Cost factors for sensors that perform measurements electrically are the expensive electrode material and complex production. Fraunhofer scientists are now producing biosensors with graphene electrodes cheaply and simply in roll-to-roll printing. A system prototype for mass production already exists.

  • Effective Deposition of Thin Insulating Layers for Sensors in Hydrogen Technology

    Schematic of a hydrogen filling station as an application scenario for pressure sensors with insulation layers. © metamorworks / Shutterstock

    Scientists at the Fraunhofer FEP have investigated new approaches for depositing low-defect insulating layers, part of the joint project “NaFuSS“ (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research/BMBF promotional reference number 13N13171). The aim is to increase the reliability and durability of pressure sensors for hydrogen technology, an area that is becoming increasingly important.

  • Effektive Graphendotierung abhängig von Trägermaterial

    Jülich, 29. März 2016 – Jülicher Physikerinnen und Physiker haben unerwartete Effekte in dotiertem, das heißt mit Fremdatomen versetztem, Graphen entdeckt. Sie untersuchten mit Stickstoff – als Fremdatom – angereicherte Proben der Kohlenstoffverbindung auf unterschiedlichen Trägermaterialen. Ungewollte Wechselwirkungen mit diesen Substraten können die elektrischen Eigenschaften des Graphens beeinflussen. Jetzt haben die Forscher des Peter-Grünberg-Instituts gezeigt, dass auch die effektive Dotierung von der Wahl des Trägermaterials abhängt. Ihre Ergebnisse wurden nun in der Fachzeitschrift Physical Review Letters veröffentlicht.

  • Efficient and Flexible – Fraunhofer ISE Presents Innovations in Storage at Energy Storage Europe

    The test cell has been successfully implemented in research projects at Fraunhofer ISE and duplicated for project partners. Fraunhofer ISE

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE is presenting innovative solutions and projects on renewable energy storage and grid integration at the Energy Storage Europe, the leading international trade fair for storage in Düsseldorf, Germany from March 13-15. Fraunhofer ISE is presenting at a joint booth of the Fraunhofer Energy Alliance (Hall 8b, booth B39). Parallel to the trade fair, the 12th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES) and the 7th Energy Storage Europe Conference (ESE) are taking place.

  • Effizient und sicher: Forscher bereiten Markteintritt für neuartigen Heimenergiespeicher vor

    Einem Wissenschaftlerteam vom EWE-Forschungszentrum NEXT ENERGY ist es gelungen, die Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Technologie für den kosteneffizienten Einsatz in Heimenergiespeichern weiterzuentwickeln. Aktuell wird der Markteintritt vorbereitet. Präsentiert wird das innovative „ResiFlow“-Konzept vom 25. bis 29. April 2016 auf der Hannover Messe.

  • Eine Mini-Antenne für die Erzeugung von hochfrequenten Spinwellen

    Eine Mini Antenne für die Erzeugung von hochfrequenten Spinwellen | Das Zentrum eines magnetischen Wirbels sendet unter hochfrequenten magnetischen Wechselfeldern Spinwellen mit sehr kurzen Wellenlängen aus. Abbildung: HZDR

    Im Zuge der rasant fortschreitenden Miniaturisierung steht die Datenverarbeitung mit Hilfe elektrischer Ströme vor zum Teil unlösbaren Herausforderungen. Eine vielversprechende Alternative für den Informationstransport in noch kompakteren Chips sind magnetische Spinwellen. Wissenschaftlern des Helmholtz-Zentrums Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) ist es nun bei einer internationalen Zusammenarbeit gelungen, Spinwellen mit extrem kurzen Wellenlängen im Nanometer-Bereich – eine entscheidende Eigenschaft für die spätere Anwendung – gezielt zu erzeugen.

  • Eine neue Art von Quanten-Bits: Elektronenlöcher

    Eine neue Art von Quanten Bits Elektronenlöcher picture 1 | Das Team vom Lehrstuhl für Festkörperphysik arbeitet mit winzigen Strukturen. Die Quantenpunkte, die die Forscher um Andreas Wieck erzeugen, sind gerade einmal 30 Nanometer breit. Photo: RUB, Marquard

    Ein Forscherteam aus Deutschland, Frankreich und der Schweiz hat Quanten-Bits, kurz Qubits, in einer neuen Form umgesetzt. Eines Tages könnten diese die Informationseinheiten eines Quantencomputers sein. Bislang hatten die Wissenschaftler Qubits in Form von einzelnen Elektronen realisiert. Das führte jedoch zu Störeffekten und machte die Informationsträger schwer zu programmieren und auszulesen. Dieses Problem beseitigte die Gruppe nun, indem sie Elektronenlöcher statt Elektronen als Qubits nutzte. Das Team berichtet in der Zeitschrift „Nature Materials“.

  • Einstein@Home Discovers First Millisecond Pulsar Visible Only in Gamma Rays

    The entire Gamma-ray sky with the two new pulsars discovered by Einstein@Home. The flags in the insets show the nationalities of the volunteers whose computers found the pulsars. Knispel/Clark/Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics/NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration

    The distributed computing project Einstein@Home aggregates the computing power donated by tens of thousands of volunteers world wide. In a survey of the gamma-ray sky, this network has now discovered two previously unknown pulsarsd in data from the Fermi space telescope. While all other such millisecond pulsars have also been observed with radio telescopes, one of the two discoveries is the first detectable solely through its pulsed gamma-ray emission. The findings raise hopes of detecting other new millisecond pulsars, e.g., from a predicted population towards the Galactic centre. Scientists from the AEI in Hannover and the MPIfR in Bonn closely collaborated to enable the discoveries.

  • Electrical Fields Drive Nano-Machines a 100,000 Times Faster than Previous Methods

    Electric fields drive the rotating nano-crane – 100,000 times faster than previous methods. Enzo Kopperger / TUM

    Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a novel electric propulsion technology for nanorobots. It allows molecular machines to move a hundred thousand times faster than with the biochemical processes used to date. This makes nanobots fast enough to do assembly line work in molecular factories. The new research results will appear as the cover story on 19th January in the renowned scientific journal Science.

  • Electricity from waste heat made possible by ceramics

    Where conventional materials reach their limits, ceramics can display their excellent properties. Functional ceramics – so-called thermoelectric materials – can convert waste heat directly into electricity, for example, in high-temperature processes. At the Hannover Messe 2016, Europe's largest ceramics research institute presents for the first time a system that demonstrates the reliable functionality of thermoelectric ceramic modules developed at Fraunhofer IKTS. (Hall 6, Booth B16)

  • Electro-organic Synthesis that Allows Sustainable and Green Production of Fine Chemicals Developed

    Up to eight different experiments can be simultaneously performed in this screening electrolyzer. Each small plastic cup houses two electrodes. photo/©: Carsten Siering, JGU

    In the cooperative EPSYLON research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, scientists from Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and Evonik Performance Materials GmbH have succeeded in developing a state-of-the-art and innovative electro-organic synthesis. The results of their research, presented in last week's issue of Science Advances, allow the use of electrosynthesis as a trend-setting and sustainable green chemistry for technical applications. The method developed allows the operator to react flexibly to the available supply of electricity. Moreover, the operator no longer has to rely on customized electrolysis apparatuses and can use a wide variety of different equipment.

  • Electron Beam Patterning for High-resolution Full-color OLED Displays

    Probe station with patterned OLEDs in the clean room of Fraunhofer FEP. © Fraunhofer FEP

    OLED microdisplays are increasingly establishing themselves in wearables and data glasses. In order to meet the requirements for higher efficiency, higher contrast, and higher resolutions in these applications, Fraunhofer FEP scientists have developed a new micropatterning approach for OLEDs on silicon substrates. This might eliminate the use of color filters and shadow masks in the future and allow full-color displays to be developed by means of a new process.

  • Electron highway inside crystal

    Step edges on topological crystalline insulators may lead to electrically conducting pathways where electrons with opposite spin spin move in converse directions - any U-turn is prohibited. Picture: Thomas Bathon/Paolo Sessi/Matthias Bode

    Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science. Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was highlighted again as the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Physics to three British scientists for their research of so-called topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.