Physics

Physics is the study of science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force through time and space. 
Physics in nanotechnology embodies segments such as quantum computing, laser technology, photonics as some examples.

  • Development and Fast Analysis of 3D Printed HF Components

    Fraunhofer FHR’s high frequency scanner SAMMI® analyses the quality of 3D printed high frequency structures. Fraunhofer FHR

    3D printing is becoming increasingly important for the development of modern high frequency systems as it opens up new design possibilities. Fraunhofer FHR is exploring these possibilities for its customers and partners: from designing new HF components to testing these components. Engineers are inspecting the quality of components manufactured using additive processes with their high frequency transmitted light imaging system SAMMI®, e.g. to verify the correct density gradients of the material. As a member of the Forschungsfabrik Mikroelektronik Deutschland, they will present this system at the Hannover Messe in hall 2, booth C22, from April 23 to 27, 2018.

  • DFG Funding: An Atom Trap for Water Dating

    Atom trap wherein 39Ar atoms are captured and detected. Florian Freundt, Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University

    A Heidelberg physics project funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) will focus on a new type of dating method for use in the earth and environmental sciences. The research team will deploy a special radioactive isotope of the noble gas argon (Ar) for the purpose of water dating. This isotope is useful for determining age in the range of 50 to 1,000 years. Prof. Dr Markus Oberthaler of the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics and Prof. Dr Werner Aeschbach of the Institute of Environmental Physics of Heidelberg University will direct the three-year project.

  • Diamond Friction: Simulation Reveals Previously Unknown Friction Mechanisms at the Molecular Level

    Passivation of water-lubricated diamond surfaces by aromatic Pandey surface reconstruction (orange). Image: © Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM

    Diamond coatings help reduce friction and wear on tools, bearings, and seals. Lubricating diamond with water considerably lowers friction. The reasons for this are not yet fully understood. The Fraunhofer Institute for Material Mechanics IWM in Freiburg and the Physics Institute at the University of Freiburg have discovered a new explanation for the friction behavior of diamond surfaces under the influence of water. One major finding: in addition to the known role played by passivation of the surfaces via water-splitting, an aromatic passivation via Pandey reconstruction can occur. The results have been published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

  • Diamond Lenses and Space Lasers at Photonics West

    Image 1: This laser cutting head with diamond optics features built-in water cooling and shielding gas supply; diamond lenses reduce its weight by 90%. © Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

    San Francisco's Photonics West, the world's premier optics and photonics trade fair, aims to bring together science and industry once again in 2018. Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be putting on an effective demonstration of how to converge the two. The Aachen-based company's booth in the German Pavilion is primed to showcase cutting-edge technology, such as a 90% lighter laser cutting head and a laser platform for space applications. Photonics experts from around the world will make their annual pilgrimage to San Francisco in late January.

  • Diamond Watch Components

    An anchor for a watch component made of single-crystal synthetic diamond. Schweizerischer Nationalfonds SNF

    SNSF-funded researchers have developed a new technique for carving materials to create micromechanical systems. In particular, they have created a miniscule watch component out of synthetic single-crystal diamond.

  • Die extrem breite IR-Absorptionsbande des Wassers

    Die extrem breite IR Absorptionsbande des Wassers picture 1 | Abb. 1: Die Hydratisierung von Protonen geht weit über das typische Textbuchbeispiel des Hydroniums (H₃O⁺) hinaus.

    Die Ursache der extrem breiten Infrarotabsorption von Protonen in wässriger Umgebung wird seit langem kontrovers diskutiert. Ein Forscherteam des Max-Born-Instituts in Berlin und der Ben Gurion Universität des Negev in Beer-Sheva zeigt jetzt am Beispiel des Zundel-Kations (H₂O...H⁺...OH₂) H₅O₂⁺, dass die umgebende Flüssigkeit fluktuierende elektrische Kräfte auf das Proton ausübt und damit seine Schwingungsbewegung zwischen den beiden Wassermolekülen moduliert. Dieser Mechanismus ruft zusammen mit niederfrequenten thermischen Bewegungen die extreme Verbreiterung des Infrarotspektrums hervor.

  • Die Quantenschaukel - ein Pendel das gleichzeitig vor und zurück schwingt

    Ultrakurze Terahertz-Impulse regen Zwei-Quanten-Oszillationen von Atomen in einem Halbleiterkristall an. Die von den bewegten Atomen abgestrahlten Terahertz-Wellen werden mittels einer neuen zeitaufgelösten Technik analysiert und zeigen den nicht-klassischen Charakter der Atombewegungen von großer Amplitude.

  • Die Vermessung der Chemie: Wasserstoffbrücken-Bindungen experimentell erfasst

    Ein Team aus dem Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin konnte nun erstmals messen, wie neue Verbindungen zwischen Molekülen diese beeinflussen: Sie haben aus Messdaten an der Swiss Lightsource des Paul-Scherrer-Instituts die „Energielandschaft“ von Azeton-Molekülen rekonstruiert und so experimentell den Aufbau von Wasserstoffbrücken zwischen Azeton- und Chloroform-Molekülen nachgewiesen. Die Ergebnisse sind in Nature Scientific Reports veröffentlicht und helfen, grundlegende Phänomene der Chemie zu verstehen.

  • Direct Coupling of the Higgs Boson to the Top Quark Observed

    CMS detector in a cavern 100 m underground at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. CERN

    An observation made by the CMS experiment at CERN unambiguously demonstrates the interaction of the Higgs boson and top quarks, which are the heaviest known subatomic particles. This major milestone is an important step forward in our understanding of the origins of mass. Physicists at the University of Zurich made central contributions by incorporating sophisticated data analysis methods that allowed this benchmark to be reached much earlier than expected.

  • Directly-cooled Electric Motor Made from Polymer Materials

    Sectional view of the electric motor. © Fraunhofer ICT

    Making electric cars lighter also involves reducing the weight of the motor. One way to do that is by constructing it from fiber-reinforced polymer materials. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT are working together with the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT to develop a new cooling concept that will enable polymers to be used as motor housing materials. And that’s not the only advantage of the new cooling concept: it also significantly increases the power density and efficiency of the motor compared to the state of the art.

  • DNA Origami: Building Virus-sized Structures and Saving Costs Through Mass Production

    Self-organization forms „gear-wheels“ from V-shaped building blocks, constructed using DNA origami techniques. In a next step, these gears form tubes with a size comparable with virus capsids. Hendrik Dietz / TUM

    It is the double strands of our genes that make them so strong. Using a technique known as DNA origami, biophysicist Hendrik Dietz has been building nanometer-scale objects for several years at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). Now Dietz and his team have not only broken out of the nanometer realm to build larger objects, but have also cut the production costs a thousand-fold. These innovations open a whole new frontier for the technology.

  • Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

    Printed thermoelectric module with flexible geometry Fraunhofer IWS Dresden

    The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

  • Dünnschicht-Solarzellen: Wie Defekte in CIGSe-Zellen entstehen und verschwinden

    Kupferanteil spielt entscheidende Rolle

    Eine internationale Kollaboration aus deutschen, israelischen und britischen Teams hat die Abscheidung von einzelnen Chalkopyrit-Dünnschichten untersucht. An der Röntgenquelle BESSY II des Helmholtz-Zentrums Berlin konnten sie beobachten, wann sich während der Deposition bestimmte Defekte bilden und unter welchen Umständen sie ausheilen. Die Ergebnisse geben Hinweise für die Optimierung der Herstellungsprozesse und sind nun in „Energy & Environmental Science“ publiziert.

  • Ears from the 3D-printer

    A 3D-printed ear: Empa researcher Michael Hausmann uses nanocellulose as the basis for novel implants. Empa

    Cellulose obtained from wood has amazing material properties. Empa researchers are now equipping the biodegradable material with additional functionalities to produce implants for cartilage diseases using 3D printing. It all starts with an ear. Empa researcher Michael Hausmann removes the object shaped like a human ear from the 3D printer and explains: «In viscous state cellulose nanocrystals can easily be shaped together with nother biopolymers into complex 3-dimensional structures using a 3D printer, such as the Bioplotter.” Once cross-linked, the structures remain stable despite their soft mechanical properties.

  • Easy Printing of Biosensors Made of Graphene

    Endless film with printed biosensors: Fraunhofer has developed a convenient roll-to-roll process. Fraunhofer IBMT

    Cell-based biosensors can simulate the effect of various substances, such as drugs, on the human body in the laboratory. Depending on the measuring principle, though, producing them can be expensive. As a result, they are often not used. Cost factors for sensors that perform measurements electrically are the expensive electrode material and complex production. Fraunhofer scientists are now producing biosensors with graphene electrodes cheaply and simply in roll-to-roll printing. A system prototype for mass production already exists.

  • Economical Engines Due to Less Friction

    The Diamor® coating developed at the Fraunhofer IWS could contribute to reduce CO2 emissions by reducing friction in the engine cylinder between the coated piston pin and the connecting rod bushing. © Fraunhofer IWS Dresden

    Together with the automotive industry, researchers at the Fraunhofer IWS have been working to develop processes for friction-reducing surfaces of engine components over the past few years. Now, carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced even further by enhancing surface technology. The Dresden Institute is researching in this direction with various partners in the joint project "Prometheus".

  • Effective Deposition of Thin Insulating Layers for Sensors in Hydrogen Technology

    Schematic of a hydrogen filling station as an application scenario for pressure sensors with insulation layers. © metamorworks / Shutterstock

    Scientists at the Fraunhofer FEP have investigated new approaches for depositing low-defect insulating layers, part of the joint project “NaFuSS“ (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research/BMBF promotional reference number 13N13171). The aim is to increase the reliability and durability of pressure sensors for hydrogen technology, an area that is becoming increasingly important.

  • Effektive Graphendotierung abhängig von Trägermaterial

    Jülich, 29. März 2016 – Jülicher Physikerinnen und Physiker haben unerwartete Effekte in dotiertem, das heißt mit Fremdatomen versetztem, Graphen entdeckt. Sie untersuchten mit Stickstoff – als Fremdatom – angereicherte Proben der Kohlenstoffverbindung auf unterschiedlichen Trägermaterialen. Ungewollte Wechselwirkungen mit diesen Substraten können die elektrischen Eigenschaften des Graphens beeinflussen. Jetzt haben die Forscher des Peter-Grünberg-Instituts gezeigt, dass auch die effektive Dotierung von der Wahl des Trägermaterials abhängt. Ihre Ergebnisse wurden nun in der Fachzeitschrift Physical Review Letters veröffentlicht.

  • Efficient and Flexible – Fraunhofer ISE Presents Innovations in Storage at Energy Storage Europe

    The test cell has been successfully implemented in research projects at Fraunhofer ISE and duplicated for project partners. Fraunhofer ISE

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE is presenting innovative solutions and projects on renewable energy storage and grid integration at the Energy Storage Europe, the leading international trade fair for storage in Düsseldorf, Germany from March 13-15. Fraunhofer ISE is presenting at a joint booth of the Fraunhofer Energy Alliance (Hall 8b, booth B39). Parallel to the trade fair, the 12th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES) and the 7th Energy Storage Europe Conference (ESE) are taking place.

  • Effizient und sicher: Forscher bereiten Markteintritt für neuartigen Heimenergiespeicher vor

    Einem Wissenschaftlerteam vom EWE-Forschungszentrum NEXT ENERGY ist es gelungen, die Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Technologie für den kosteneffizienten Einsatz in Heimenergiespeichern weiterzuentwickeln. Aktuell wird der Markteintritt vorbereitet. Präsentiert wird das innovative „ResiFlow“-Konzept vom 25. bis 29. April 2016 auf der Hannover Messe.