Physics

Physics is the study of science that deals with matter, energy, motion, and force through time and space. 
Physics in nanotechnology embodies segments such as quantum computing, laser technology, photonics as some examples.

  • “Bethe Strings” Experimentally Demonstrated as Many-Body Quantum States for the First Time

    In SrCo₂V₂O₈ the cobalt ions (CO²⁺) form in the interior of a chain of edges-linked oxygen octahedra a quasi-one-dimensional electron spin chain with spin S = ½. © Universität Augsburg/IfP/EP V

    The synthesis of quasi one-dimensional magnets and their investigation by means of optical spectroscopy in extremely high magnetic fields led to success. Augsburg /AL/KPP - “Bethe strings” are excitations of strongly bound electron spins in one-dimensional quantum spin systems. These quantum spin states are named after the physicist Hans Bethe, who first described them theoretically in 1931.

  • “Electricity as a Raw Material” at ACHEMA 2018: Green Energy for Sustainable Chemistry

    Demonstrator for the production of ethene from CO2. Fraunhofer IGB

    Hydrogen peroxide, ethene, alcohols: The Fraunhofer lighthouse project “Electricity as a raw material” is developing electrochemical processes that use renewable electricity to synthesize basic chemicals - with the aim of making the chemical industry more sustainable. From June 11 to 15, Fraunhofer UM-SICHT will be presenting the results together with eight other Fraunhofer Institutes at ACHEMA 2018.

  • “Molecular Bicycle Pedal”: Researchers Present Molecular Switch

    Cover Picture: Photoinduced Pedalo-Type Motion in an Azodicarboxamide-Based Molecular Switch (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 7/2018) © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

    Just like a bicycle pedal that can be turned forwards and backwards – this is how the new molecular switch can be described which Dr. Saeed Amirjalayer, from the University of Münster’s Institute of Physics, and his co-authors have now presented in the journal “Angewandte Chemie” (“Applied Chemistry”). The pedal motion is triggered by light.

  • “MuReA“ Provides Quick and Large-Scale Laser Applications

    The multi remote system of the Fraunhofer IWS Dresden processes large areas by means of laser radiation and atmospheric pressure plasma. © Fraunhofer IWS Dresden

    The Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik IWS developed the novel remote system concept (MuReA) for quick, flexible and efficient laser processing tasks. IWS scientists combined laser remote systems, spindle drives and high performance beam sources with each other. As a result, this novel laser system enables large-scale, flexible and quick processing tasks for materials such as aluminum, stainless steel as well as fiber reinforced polymers. Working areas of up to one square meter can be processed at a laser beam speed of up to 10 meters per second. In particular, the automotive and the aerospace industry will benefit from possible applications.

  • 10nm Pattern Generation Using Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography Enabled by Simplified Materials and Processes

    High resolution metal lines fabricated by means of lit-off process. (c) PiBond Oy

    Thermal scanning probe lithography (tSPL) has been used to create patterns with sub-20 nm half pitch resolution. Pattern generation uses a thermally sensitive resist and spin coatable hard mask materials to transfer the resist patterns. Spin coatable materials permit users of tSPL to reduce time and cost of the patterning process.

  • 2+1 is Not Always 3 - In the microworld unity is not always strength

    If a person pushes a broken-down car alone, there is a certain effect. If another person helps, the result is the sum of their efforts. If two micro-particles are pushing another microparticle, however, the resulting effect may not necessarily be the sum their efforts. A recent study published in Nature Communications, measured this odd effect that scientists call “many body.”

  • 26.1 % Record Efficiency for p-Type Crystalline Si Solar Cells

    Monocrystalline silicon solar cell with POLO-contacts for both polarities on the solar cell rear side. In the foreground the rear side of seven solar cells processed on one wafer can be seen. ISFH

    The Institute for Solar Energy Research Hameln (ISFH) and Leibniz Universität Hannover have developed a crystalline silicon solar cell with an independently confirmed efficiency of (26.10 +/- 0.31 %) under one sun. This is a world record for p-type Si material, which currently covers ~90% of the world photovoltaic market. The record cell uses a passivating electron-selective n+ type polysilicon on oxide (POLO) junction and a hole-selective p+ type POLO junction. It is the high selectivity of theses junctions that allow these high efficiencies. As an important step towards industrialization, laser ablation is used for the contact opening process.

  • 2nd Conference on Laser Polishing LaP 2016 in Aachen

    Remelting a thin surface layer is an effective way to laser polish many metals and glasses. The focus of the two-day LaP conference, which will be held at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser technology ILT in Aachen on April 26 and 27, 2016, will be on presentations and practical demonstrations profiling the various techniques.

  • 3D Images of Cancer Cells in the Body: Medical Physicists from Halle Present new Method

    A picture of a tumor (green) generated with the newly developed technique. Jan Laufer

    Making tumour cells glow: Medical physicists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) have developed a new method that can generate detailed three-dimensional images of the body's interior. This can be used to more closely investigate the development of cancer cells in the body. The research group presents its findings in "Communication Physics", a journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.

  • 3D printed optical lenses, hardly larger than a human hair

    3D printed optical lenses hardly larger than a human hair | Complex 3D printed objective on an optical fiber in a syringe. University of Stuttgart/ 4th Physics Institute

    3D printing enables the smallest complex micro-objectives

    3D printing revolutionized the manufacturing of complex shapes in the last few years. Using additive depositing of materials, where individual dots or lines are written sequentially, even the most complex devices could be realized fast and easy. This method is now also available for optical elements. Researchers at University of Stuttgart in Germany have used an ultrashort laser pulses in combination with optical photoresist to create optical lenses which are hardly larger than a human hair.

  • 8th NRW Nano Conference Dortmund, Open Call for Presentations and Posters

    NRW nanoconference 2018

    The NRW Nano Conference is Germany’s largest conference with international appeal in the field of nanotechnologies. It takes place every two years at changing locations. More than 700 experts from science, industry and politics meet for two days to promote research and application of the key technology at the network meeting.

  • A Burst of ”Synchronous” Light

    Superlattices under the microscope (white light illumination). Empa

    Excited photo-emitters can cooperate and radiate simultaneously, a phenomenon called superfluorescence. Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. This discovery could enable future developments in LED lighting, quantum sensing, quantum communication and future quantum computing. The study has just been published in the renowned journal "Nature".

  • A clean automotive future through improving fuel cell auxiliary components in hydrogen-pow

    Apollo SM fuel cell - Wikimedia Commons

    The European project INN-BALANCE, co-funded by the EU, started its work in January 2017 with the aim to boost hydrogen-powered mobility by increasing the efficiency and reliability of fuel cell systems for passenger cars. With an overall budget of 6.1 M€ INN-BALANCE project partners from industry and research will join efforts over the course of three years to optimize auxiliary components, called Balance of Plant (BoP), in current fuel cell based vehicles, thus cutting costs for production and maintenance.

  • A drop of water as a model for the interplay of adhesion and stiction

    A drop of water as a model for the interplay of adhesion and stiction picture 1 | Electrochemistry in a drop: Superposition of seven dynamic contact angle measurements of a drop of water on a surface; diameter of vertical tube capillary 0.85 mm. UZH

    Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed a system that enables them to switch back and forth the adhesion and stiction (static friction) of a water drop on a solid surface. The change in voltage is expressed macroscopically in the contact angle between the drop and the surface. This effect can be attributed to the change in the surface properties on the nanometer scale.

  • A Fine-tuned Laser Welds More Effectively

    Cardiac pacemakers are usually housed in a titanium housing that is welded together from two parts. Empa has optimized the frequency of the working laser so that no black edges appear during welding, which would reduce the value of the medical product. Image: istockphoto

    Using laser technology Empa scientists optimized a technique to weld the electronics of implantable pacemakers and defibrillators into a titanium case. The medtech company Medtronic is now using the method worldwide to produce these devices. In Tolochenaz (Canton of Vaud) the US medtech company Medtronic produces one out of five heart pacemakers available on the global market and one out of four defibrillators. The electronics of these implantable devic-es are housed in titanium cases, which thus far were welded hermetically with a solid state flash laser. However, the lasers are high-maintenance and often the source of irregularities. Moreover, they require water cooling and take up a lot of space.

  • A glimpse inside the atom: energy-filtered TEM at a subatomic level

    A glimpse inside the atom energy filtered TEM at a subatomic level | Atomic orbitals of carbon atoms in graphene Image: TU Wien

    Using electron microscopes, it is possible to image individual atoms. Scientists at TU Wien have calculated how it is possible to look even further inside the atom to image individual electron orbitals, using EFTEM (energy-filtered transmission electron microoscopy).

  • A hydrophobic membrane with nanopores for highly efficient energy storage

    A hydrophobic membrane with nanopores for highly efficient energy storage | Lab set-up of a redox flow battery with the hydrophobic membrane (grey device at the bottom of the image) and two electrolyte reservoirs (bottles with yellow liquid). Image: Philipp Scheffler / DWI

    Storing fluctuating and delivering stable electric power supply are central issues when using energy from solar plants or wind power stations. Here, efficient and flexible energy storage systems need to accommodate for fluctuations in energy gain. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials (DWI), RWTH Aachen University and Hanyang University in Seoul now significantly improved a key component for the development of new energy storage systems.

  • A Materials Scientist’s Dream Come True

    Christian Dolle, Peter Schweizer und Prof. Dr. Erdmann Spiecker (von links nach rechts) beim anipulieren von Versetzungen an ihrer Nano-Werkbank, einem erweiterten Elektronenmikroskop. Mingjian Wu

    In the 1940s, scientists first explained how materials can deform plastically by atomic-scale line defects called dislocations. These defects can be understood as tiny carpet folds that can move one part of a material relative to the other without spending a lot of energy. Many technical applications are based on this fundamental process, such as forging, but we also rely on the power of dislocations in our everyday life: in the crumple zone of cars dislocations protect lives by transforming energy into plastic deformation. FAU researchers have now found a way of manipulating individual dislocations directly on the atomic scale – a feat only dreamt of by materials scientists.

  • A New Knob to Control and Create Higher Harmonics in Solids

    When exciting crystals such as silicon by an intense elliptically or circularly polarized light pulse (red), circularly polarized higher harmonics (green & blue) can be generated. Nicolas Tancogne-Dejean + Joerg M. Harms, MPSD

    Scientists at the MPSD and CFEL have demonstrated the possibility of using a new knob to control and optimize the generation of high-order harmonics in bulk materials, one of the most important physical processes for generating high-energy photons and for the ultrafast manipulation of information.

  • A new spin on electronics

    The spin of electrons transports information in this conducting layer between two isolators. Image: Christoph Hohmann / NIM

    Interface between insulators enables information transport by spin.
    Modern computer technology is based on the transport of electric charge in semiconductors. But this technology’s potential will be reaching its limits in the near future, since the components deployed cannot be miniaturized further. But, there is another option: using an electron’s spin, instead of its charge, to transmit information. A team of scientists from Munich and Kyoto is now demonstrating how this works.