Graphene

Graphene is simply said a thin layer of pure carbon. Graphene sheets are single layers of graphite with a uniform honeycomb-like structure. Graphene has outstanding mechanical and electrical properties and can be functionalised very easily, this is what makes it valuable in many application fields.

Examples: promising material for spintronics & new electronic applications; surface treatments; raw material for other carbon based nanomaterials.

  • A Materials Scientist’s Dream Come True

    Christian Dolle, Peter Schweizer und Prof. Dr. Erdmann Spiecker (von links nach rechts) beim anipulieren von Versetzungen an ihrer Nano-Werkbank, einem erweiterten Elektronenmikroskop. Mingjian Wu

    In the 1940s, scientists first explained how materials can deform plastically by atomic-scale line defects called dislocations. These defects can be understood as tiny carpet folds that can move one part of a material relative to the other without spending a lot of energy. Many technical applications are based on this fundamental process, such as forging, but we also rely on the power of dislocations in our everyday life: in the crumple zone of cars dislocations protect lives by transforming energy into plastic deformation. FAU researchers have now found a way of manipulating individual dislocations directly on the atomic scale – a feat only dreamt of by materials scientists.

  • Applications of Graphene

    Application of Graphene

    In order to get introduced to Graphene, a good point of start would be Graphite. Graphite is a naturally-occurring form of crystalline carbon. It is a native element mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Regarding its composition, Graphite is a stack of carbon-atom layers.

  • Easy Printing of Biosensors Made of Graphene

    Endless film with printed biosensors: Fraunhofer has developed a convenient roll-to-roll process. Fraunhofer IBMT

    Cell-based biosensors can simulate the effect of various substances, such as drugs, on the human body in the laboratory. Depending on the measuring principle, though, producing them can be expensive. As a result, they are often not used. Cost factors for sensors that perform measurements electrically are the expensive electrode material and complex production. Fraunhofer scientists are now producing biosensors with graphene electrodes cheaply and simply in roll-to-roll printing. A system prototype for mass production already exists.

  • Effect of humidity on graphene sensors demistified

    Humidity effect on graphene doping.

    Graphene produced with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) will form the cornerstone of future graphene-based chemical, biological, and other types of sensors. Graphene, however, is extremely sensitive to air, in particular to humidity. To avoid unwanted background coming from humidity and to calibrate future sensors, it is highly important to investigate the mechanisms by which water (in the form of environmental humidity) affects graphene sheets.

  • Effektive Graphendotierung abhängig von Trägermaterial

    Jülich, 29. März 2016 – Jülicher Physikerinnen und Physiker haben unerwartete Effekte in dotiertem, das heißt mit Fremdatomen versetztem, Graphen entdeckt. Sie untersuchten mit Stickstoff – als Fremdatom – angereicherte Proben der Kohlenstoffverbindung auf unterschiedlichen Trägermaterialen. Ungewollte Wechselwirkungen mit diesen Substraten können die elektrischen Eigenschaften des Graphens beeinflussen. Jetzt haben die Forscher des Peter-Grünberg-Instituts gezeigt, dass auch die effektive Dotierung von der Wahl des Trägermaterials abhängt. Ihre Ergebnisse wurden nun in der Fachzeitschrift Physical Review Letters veröffentlicht.

  • Ein Nanographen mit Hunger auf Elektronen

    Im Herbst 2015 hat das Graduiertenkolleg „Molekulare Biradikale“ seine Arbeit an der Uni Würzburg aufgenommen. Jetzt liegt ein erstes Ergebnis dieser Zusammenarbeit von Chemikern und Physikern vor: eine Publikation über ein neues Molekül, das für die organische Elektronik interessant ist.

  • Electronic Highways on the Nanoscale

    In the Laboratory a structured silicon carbide crystal is heated in a preparation chamber of a scanning tunneling microscope, so that small graphene structures can be formed. Photo: TU Chemnitz/Jacob Müller

    For the first time, the targeted functionalization of carbon-based nanostructures allows the direct mapping of current paths, thereby paving the way for novel quantum devices. Computers are getting faster and increasingly powerful. However, at the same time computing requires noticeably more energy, which is almost completely converted to wasted heat. This is not only harmful to the environment, but also limits further miniaturization of electronic components and increase of clock rates. A way out of this dilemma are conductors with no electrical resistance.

  • Faster, More Precise, More Stable: Study Optimizes Graphene Growth

    Visible to the naked eye: A wafer-thin graphene flake obtained via chemical vapor deposition. The red coloration of the copper substrate appears when the sample is heated in air. (Photo: J. Kraus/ TUM)

    Each atomic layer thin, tear-resistant, and stable. Graphene is seen as the material of the future. It is ideal for e.g. producing ultra-light electronics or highly stable mechanical components. But the wafer-thin carbon layers are difficult to produce. At the Technical University of Munich (TUM), Jürgen Kraus has manufactured self-supporting graphene membranes, and at the same time systematically investigated and optimized the growth of the graphene crystals. He was awarded the Evonik Research Prize for his work.

  • Fine Felted Nanotubes: CAU Research Team Develops New Composite Material Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    In this new process, the tiny, thread-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrange themselves - almost like felting - to form a stable, tear-resistant layer. Fabian Schütt

    Due to their unique properties, carbon nanotubes would be ideal for numerous applications, from ultra-lightweight batteries to high-performance plastics, right through to medical implants. But they either cannot be combined adequately with other materials, or they then lose their beneficial properties. Scientists from Kiel University and the University of Trento have now developed an alternative combining method, so that they retain their characteristic properties. As such, they "felt" the thread-like tubes into a stable 3D network that is able to withstand extreme forces. The research results have been published in the journal Nature Communications.

  • Fraunhofer HHI at FOE

    Location of Terahertz waves in the electromagnetic spectrum.

    At this year’s Photonics West Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute HHI presents its latest developments in Photonic Components, Systems and Networks.

    Photonics West is the world's largest photonics technologies event. Every year over 20,000 people come to hear the latest research and find the latest devices and systems driving technology markets including state-of-the art medical technologies, the Internet of things, smart manufacturing and “Industry 4.0,” autonomous vehicles, scientific research, communications, displays, and other solutions powered by photonics.

  • Graphen fehlerfrei losgelöst von Graphit

    Graphen fehlerfrei losgelöst von Graphit | Chemische Herstellung von Graphen: Das Lösungsmittel Benzonitril (grauer Kreis) nimmt die Verursacher von möglichen Defekten auf und färbt sich rot – es entsteht defektfreies Graphen (roter Kreis). Abbildung: FAU/Philipp Vecera

    Graphen gilt als eines der vielversprechendsten neuen Materialien. Es defektfrei und kostengünstig herzustellen, ist für Wissenschaftler weltweit jedoch nach wie vor eine große Herausforderung. Chemikern der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) ist es nun erstmals gelungen, defektfreies Graphen direkt aus Graphit herzustellen. Ihre Ergebnisse hat die Arbeitsgruppe im renommierten Fachmagazin „Nature Communications“ veröffentlicht (DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12411).

  • Graphen-Nanobänder: Auf die Ränder kommt es an

    Wie die Fachzeitschrift «Nature» in ihrer aktuellen Ausgabe berichtet, ist es Forschern der Empa, des Max-Planck-Instituts in Mainz und der TU Dresden erstmals gelungen, aus Molekülen Graphen-Nanobänder mit perfektem Zickzackrand herzustellen. Die Atome der Ränder verfügen über Elektronen mit unterschiedlichem (und gekoppeltem) Drehsinn («Spin»). Dieser könnte Graphen-Nanobänder zum Werkstoff der Wahl für eine Elektronik der Zukunft machen, die so genannte Spintronik.

  • Graphene aids optical study of dye molecules

    Graphene aids optical study of dye molecules | Figure: Regular arrangements of dye molecules on graphene. Top: The particular dye molecule used in the study. Image reproduced from original publication.

    By using graphene as substrate, dye molecules self-assemble and form monolayers of high regularity. This increases their optical properties significantly.

  • Graphene electrodes offer new functionalities in molecular electronic nanodevices

    Molecules covalently attached to graphene are ideal candidates for electronic devices.  © Alexander Rudnev, University of Bern

    An international team of researchers led by the University of Bern and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. The results could be exploited to develop smaller, higher-performance devices for use in a range of applications including molecular sensing, flexible electronics, and energy conversion and storage, as well as robust measurement setups for resistance standards.

  • Graphene Enables Clock Rates in the Terahertz Range

    Graphene converts electronic signals with frequencies in the gigahertz range extremely efficiently into signals with several times higher frequency. Juniks/HZDR

    Graphene is considered a promising candidate for the nanoelectronics of the future. In theory, it should allow clock rates up to a thousand times faster than today’s silicon-based electronics. Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and the University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE), in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI-P), have now shown for the first time that graphene can actually convert electronic signals with frequencies in the gigahertz range – which correspond to today’s clock rates – extremely efficiently into signals with several times higher frequency. The researchers present their results in the scientific journal “Nature”.

  • How a FAU researcher disassembles molecules

    Prof.Dr. Andreas Hirsch, holder of the Chair of Organic Chemistry II at FAU, has received an ERC Advanced Grant for the second time. FAU/Boris Mijat

    The EU is granting the chemist Andreas Hirsch of Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) 2.49 million euros to conduct research into black phosphorus on the molecular level. The holder of the Chair of Organic Chemistry II at FAU aims to develop new areas for its application, for instance in the fields of electrical energy storage and solar cells. It could make batteries last longer or enable solar cells to produce more electrical energy. This is the second ERC Advanced Grant to be approved for a research project headed by Hirsch. That makes him the first FAU researcher to achieve this feat.

  • How nanotechnology is going to shape the electronics industry

    How nanotechnology is going to shape the electronics industry

     

    Electronics industry is one of the most interesting industry sector - if not the most interesting - for the application of nanotechnology. Already in present time, nanotechnology has already been introduced to the electronic industry. The critical length scale of the integrated circuits are already in nano scale. In this particular article few of the most popular product segments will be discussed.

  • If Solubilty is the Problem - Mechanochemistry is the Solution

    Mechanical energy provided by the collision of milling ball in planetary ball mills allows to synthesize nanographene structures under environmentally friendly and solvent-free reaction conditions. Sven Grätz

     

    Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. Because of their unique electrical, thermal and mechanical characteristics, the carbon modification graphene and its little brothers the nanographenes are known as a very promising material for applications in electronics, sensor technology and energy storage.

  • Individual Impurity Atoms Detectable in Graphene

    Using the atomic force microscope’s carbon monoxide functionalized tip (red/silver), the forces between the tip and the various atoms in the graphene ribbon can be measured. Image: University of Basel, Department of Physics

    A team including physicists from the University of Basel has succeeded in using atomic force microscopy to clearly obtain images of individual impurity atoms in graphene ribbons. Thanks to the forces measured in the graphene’s two-dimensional carbon lattice, they were able to identify boron and nitrogen for the first time, as the researchers report in the journal Science Advances.

  • Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

    Overview of the entire chip. AC = Accumulator, internal buffer; PC = Program Counter, points at the next instruction to be executed; IR = Instruction Register,  used to buffer data- and instruction-bits received from the external memory; CU = Control Unit, orchestrates the other units according to the instruction to be executed; OR = Output Register, memory used to buffer output-data; ALU = Arithmetic Logic Unit, does the actual calculations.

    Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

    Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a few layers of atoms. Graphene is the best-known 2D material. Molybdenum disulphide (a layer consisting of molybdenum and sulphur atoms that is three-atoms thick) also falls in this category, although, unlike graphene, it has semiconductor properties. With his team, Dr Thomas Mueller from the Photonics Institute at TU Wien is conducting research into 2D materials, viewing them as a promising alternative for the future production of microprocessors and other integrated circuits.