Electrons

  • A new spin on electronics

    The spin of electrons transports information in this conducting layer between two isolators. Image: Christoph Hohmann / NIM

    Interface between insulators enables information transport by spin.
    Modern computer technology is based on the transport of electric charge in semiconductors. But this technology’s potential will be reaching its limits in the near future, since the components deployed cannot be miniaturized further. But, there is another option: using an electron’s spin, instead of its charge, to transmit information. A team of scientists from Munich and Kyoto is now demonstrating how this works.

  • An Acoustic Cage for Electrons

    In a piezo-electric solid (PE), counter-propagating surface-acoustic waves generate a time-dependent, periodic electric potential for electrons confined to a two-dimensional plane, i.e. a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG); the resulting acoustic lattices are one- or two-dimensional, depending on the geometry of the setup. At high SAW frequencies, the potential can be effectively described by a time-independent pseudo-lattice. The motion of electrons at potential minima can be described by a harmonic oscillator, superimposed by small-amplitude, high-frequency micro-oscillations. (Graphic: from the original publication)

    International team of scientist develops new concept for trapping and manipulating electrons with sound waves. The ability to trap and control electrons and other quasi-particles for the study of isolated single particles as well as many-body systems in a solid-state environment can be of major importance for understanding the behaviour of correlated electrons in technologically relevant materials. Because of their – compared to atoms – extremely small masses, these point-like particles are very fast and mobile. This, however, makes them hard to hold in place.

  • An International Team of Physicists Discovered a Coherent Amplification Effect in Laser Excited Dielectrics

    Copyright: Uni Kassel

    An international team of physicists from the University of Kassel, led by Prof. Thomas Baumert, and the University of Aarhus, led by Prof. Peter Balling, discovered that ultra-short laser pulses are amplified in a laser excited piece of glass. This amplification, similar to a classical laser, is directed and of coherent nature. By utilizing theoretical models and simulations, the researchers were able to understand and reproduce the multi-step process leading to the “Laser Amplification in Excited Dielectrics” (short: LADIE) named effect. Their results were published online in the well-known research journal Nature Physics.

  • Applying electron beams to 3-D objects

    Electron exit window and robotic handling for applying electron beams over three dimensions © Fraunhofer FEP, Photographer: Jürgen Lösel

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP now has the technological means of applying electron beams very flexible to 3-D objects through use of its new electron wand of the Swiss company ebeam by COMET.

  • atmoFlex – Fraunhofer FEP enhances its facilities for coating plastic films

    1,200 mm-wide slot die for contactless coating of fragile substrate can be heated up to 50°C. © Fraunhofer FEP, Fotograf: Jürgen Lösel

    A leader in thin-film technology R&D, the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP in Dresden, Germany, has significantly enhanced its capabilities. Scientists will be explaining and illustrating the new opportunities using a model of the new coating machine atmoFlex at their trade fair booth during ICE 2017 in Munich/Germany (Hall A5, booth 1157), from March 21 – 23.

    Fraunhofer FEP has been pushing the technology development for thin-film coatings on plastic film for years. The basis for these advances has been its roll-to-roll process lines that facilitate the development of coating systems, from lab-scale to prototype samples, up through initial pilot manufacturing for industrial applications.

  • Breaking Newton's Law

    Physicists have observed an intriguing oscillatory back-and-forth motion of a quantum particle in a one-dimensional atomic gas. Florian Meinert

    In the quantum world, our intuition for moving objects is strongly challenged and may sometimes even completely fail. Experimental physicists of the University of Innsbruck in collaboration with theorists from Munich, Paris and Cambridge have found a quantum particle which shows an intriguing oscillatory back-and-forth motion in a one-dimensional atomic gas. A ripe apple falling from a tree has inspired Sir Isaac Newton to formulate a theory that describes the motion of objects subject to a force. Newton’s equations of motion tell us that a moving body keeps on moving on a straight line unless any disturbing force may change its path. The impact of Newton’s laws is ubiquitous in our everyday experience, ranging from a skydiver falling in the earth's gravitational field, over the inertia one feels in an accelerating airplane, to the earth orbiting around the sun.

  • Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

    Arists’ view of the quantized thermal conductance of an atomically thin gold contact. Created by Enrique Sahagun

    In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport. The precise control of electron transport in microelectronics makes complex logic circuits possible that are in daily use in smartphones and laptops. Heat transport is of similar fundamental importance and its control is for instance necessary to efficiently cool the ever smaller chips. An international team including theoretical physicists from Konstanz, Junior Professor Fabian Pauly and Professor Peter Nielaba and their staff, has achieved a real breakthrough in better understanding heat transport at the nanoscale.

  • Chemical Reactions in the Light of Ultrashort X-ray Pulses from Free-electron Lasers

    Ultrashort X-ray pulses (pink) ionize neon gas in the center of the ring. An infrared laser (orange) deflects the electrons (blue) on their way to the detectors. Image: Terry Anderson / SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    Ultra-short, high-intensity X-ray flashes open the door to the foundations of chemical reactions. Free-electron lasers generate these kinds of pulses, but there is a catch: the pulses vary in duration and energy. An international research team has now presented a solution: Using a ring of 16 detectors and a circularly polarized laser beam, they can determine both factors with attosecond accuracy.

  • Cooling towards absolute zero using super-heavy electrons

    Temperature evolution of an Yb0.81Sc0.19Co2Zn20 single crystal during the reduction of a magnetic field from 8 to 0 Tesla. © University of Augsburg, IFP/EP VI

    New quantum material significantly improves adiabatic demagnetization cooling

  • Countdown to the space mission “Solar Orbiter”: Measuring instruments from Kiel start their voyage

    The three sensors from Kiel are ready for space: EPT-HET1 and 2 on the left, and STEP on the right. Photo/Copyright: Jürgen Haacks, CAU

    Around five years ago, a team led by a physicist from Kiel University, Professor Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, won the coveted tender for providing instruments to be placed on board the “Solar Orbiter” space probe. This joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the US space agency NASA is expected to launch in October 2018, and will go closer to the sun than has ever been done before. Now, exactly on schedule, the preparations in Kiel for this mission are entering their final phase. On Monday 21 November the flight instruments from Kiel will be handed over to the space probe installation team in England.

  • Defects at the spinterface disrupt transmission

    An organic radical approaches a lattice of rutile crystals (red) – here with an ideal surface free of defects Graphic: Benedetta Casu and Arrigo Calzolari

    Tübingen researchers put metal-oxides and organic magnets together; applications for electronics in sight

  • Describing the Behaviour of Electrons Under Extreme Conditions for the First Time

    In nature, the hot, dense matter of electron gas occurs inside planets, such as here in Jupiter. Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gabriel Fiset

    Electrons are an elementary component of our world: they surround the core of all atoms, are essential to the formation of molecules, and primarily determine the properties of solids and liquids. They are also the charge carriers of electrical current, without which our high-tech environment with smartphones, computers and even the traditional light bulb would not be conceivable. In spite of their omnipresence in everyday life, we have not yet been able to accurately describe the behaviour of interacting electrons - only approximate it in models - especially at extreme temperatures and densities, such as inside planets or in stars.

  • Further Improvement of Qubit Lifetime for Quantum Computers

    Illustration of the filtering of unwanted quasiparticles (red spheres) from a stream of superconducting electron pairs (blue spheres) using a microwave-driven pump. Philip Krantz, Krantz NanoArt

    New Technique Removes Quasiparticles from Superconducting Quantum Circuits - An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. An important prerequisite for the realization of high-performance quantum computers is that the stored data should remain intact for as long as possible. The researchers, including Jülich physicist Dr. Gianluigi Catelani, have developed and tested a technique that removes unpaired electrons from the circuits. These are known to shorten the qubit lifetime (to be published online by the journal Science today.

  • Inactivate vaccines faster and more effectively using electron beams

    Fraunhofer FEP.

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, one of the leading research and development partners for electron beam applications, is developing processes and equipment based on this technology for use in medicine, pharmacology, and that conserves natural resources and protects the environment. Scientists at Fraunhofer FEP in conjunction with other partners within the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft have been conducting research for several years on employing electron-beam technology in medical engineering. Low-energy inactivation of pathogens by means of electron beams (LEEI – Low-Energy Electron Irradiation) can also be used for faster manufacture of more effective vaccines. The foundation for this has been under joint development by the Fraunhofer FEP, IZI, IPA, and IGB Institutes since 2014.

  • International Stir Caused by Unusual Study on Noble Gases

    Nobel gases are used as light sources in fluorescent tubes. Foto: thauwald-pictures/fotolia.com

    Experts acclaim the research findings of the team of authors from Bremen, Leipzig, Wuppertal and the USA as a scientific breakthrough in basic research. The world leading journal “Applied Chemistry” features the study on its cover page.

    Reactions with noble gases have long been a cause of fascination for chemists. The substances used as light sources in fluorescent tubes, for instance, are extremely slow to react in respect of their chemical reactions – they are therefore called “noble”. A newly published study in this area of basic research is currently causing quite a stir in expert circles.

  • Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

    Electrons rotate on their way through the chip in a spiral pattern. Adjustments in the voltage lead to changes in this pattern and thus the orientation of the spin can be controlled. University of Basel, Department of Physics

    Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

  • Manipulation of the characteristics of magnetic materials

    In the simulation, magnetic signals spread along the domain walls in a few nanoseconds. The signals behave in a wave-like manner, with the initially high amplitude rapidly becoming smaller. McCord

    Magnets are not everywhere equally magnetized, but automatically split up into smaller areas, so-called magnetic domains. The walls between the domains are of particular importance: they determine the magnetic properties of the material. A research team of material scientists from Kiel University is working on artificially creating domain walls to be able to modify in a controlled way the behaviour of magnets on a nanometre scale. In the long term, this method could also be used for high-speed and energy-efficient data transfer. The research results were recently published in the renowned journal “Scientific Reports”.

  • Matter-antimatter symmetry confirmed with precision record

    Sketch of the experimental setup used at CERN for the determination of the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio. Graphic: Masaki Hori

    CERN experiment sets precision record in the measurement of the antiproton to electron mass ratio using a new innovative cooling technique. According to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, to each particle exists an antiparticle that is supposed to behave exactly the same way. Thus, “anti-people” in an “anti-world” would observe the same laws of physics, or make the same experiences in general, as we do. This postulate is, however, difficult to prove, since it is almost impossible to perform measurements on antimatter: whenever an antiparticle meets is matter-counterpart, both particles annihilate, accompanied by the creation of energy.

  • Mit Elektronenstrahlen Keime abtöten

    Probe eines Schweineherzbeutels © Fraunhofer FEP

    Medizinprodukte, Verpackungen und Lebensmittel lassen sich sicher und effizient durch Elektronenstrahlen sterilisieren. Fraunhofer-Forscher wollen künftig mit beschleunigten Elektronen auch Gewebetransplantate von Keimen befreien und zudem die Eigenschaften des biologischen Materials verändern.

  • New procedure for producing safe and more effective vaccines

    Foto Fraunhofer FEP

    A consortium of four Fraunhofer Institutes (the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI, Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, and the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB) is developing a way of inactivating viruses and other pathogens based on low energy electron irradiation. This may aid the manufacture of more effective, safe and also more cost-effective vaccines.