Chemistry

Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.

Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics, geology and biology. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics.

Scholars disagree about the etymology of the word chemistry. The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world.

  • “Electricity as a Raw Material” at ACHEMA 2018: Green Energy for Sustainable Chemistry

    Demonstrator for the production of ethene from CO2. Fraunhofer IGB

    Hydrogen peroxide, ethene, alcohols: The Fraunhofer lighthouse project “Electricity as a raw material” is developing electrochemical processes that use renewable electricity to synthesize basic chemicals - with the aim of making the chemical industry more sustainable. From June 11 to 15, Fraunhofer UM-SICHT will be presenting the results together with eight other Fraunhofer Institutes at ACHEMA 2018.

  • 26.1 % Record Efficiency for p-Type Crystalline Si Solar Cells

    Monocrystalline silicon solar cell with POLO-contacts for both polarities on the solar cell rear side. In the foreground the rear side of seven solar cells processed on one wafer can be seen. ISFH

    The Institute for Solar Energy Research Hameln (ISFH) and Leibniz Universität Hannover have developed a crystalline silicon solar cell with an independently confirmed efficiency of (26.10 +/- 0.31 %) under one sun. This is a world record for p-type Si material, which currently covers ~90% of the world photovoltaic market. The record cell uses a passivating electron-selective n+ type polysilicon on oxide (POLO) junction and a hole-selective p+ type POLO junction. It is the high selectivity of theses junctions that allow these high efficiencies. As an important step towards industrialization, laser ablation is used for the contact opening process.

  • 8th NRW Nano Conference Dortmund, Open Call for Presentations and Posters

    NRW nanoconference 2018

    The NRW Nano Conference is Germany’s largest conference with international appeal in the field of nanotechnologies. It takes place every two years at changing locations. More than 700 experts from science, industry and politics meet for two days to promote research and application of the key technology at the network meeting.

  • A Boost for Biofuel Cells

    Boosting the energy output by storing and bundling the energy of many spontaneous enzyme reactions. Alejandro Posada

    In chemistry, a reaction is spontaneous when it does not need the addition of an external energy input. How much energy is released in a reaction is dictated by the laws of thermodynamics. In the case of the spontaneous reactions that occur in the human body this is often not enough to power medical implants. Now, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems in Stuttgart, together with an international team of researchers, found a way to boost the energy output by storing and bundling the energy of many spontaneous enzyme reactions. The work is published in the journal Nature Communications.

  • A Burst of ”Synchronous” Light

    Superlattices under the microscope (white light illumination). Empa

    Excited photo-emitters can cooperate and radiate simultaneously, a phenomenon called superfluorescence. Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. This discovery could enable future developments in LED lighting, quantum sensing, quantum communication and future quantum computing. The study has just been published in the renowned journal "Nature".

  • A clean automotive future through improving fuel cell auxiliary components in hydrogen-pow

    Apollo SM fuel cell - Wikimedia Commons

    The European project INN-BALANCE, co-funded by the EU, started its work in January 2017 with the aim to boost hydrogen-powered mobility by increasing the efficiency and reliability of fuel cell systems for passenger cars. With an overall budget of 6.1 M€ INN-BALANCE project partners from industry and research will join efforts over the course of three years to optimize auxiliary components, called Balance of Plant (BoP), in current fuel cell based vehicles, thus cutting costs for production and maintenance.

  • A drop of water as a model for the interplay of adhesion and stiction

    A drop of water as a model for the interplay of adhesion and stiction picture 1 | Electrochemistry in a drop: Superposition of seven dynamic contact angle measurements of a drop of water on a surface; diameter of vertical tube capillary 0.85 mm. UZH

    Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed a system that enables them to switch back and forth the adhesion and stiction (static friction) of a water drop on a solid surface. The change in voltage is expressed macroscopically in the contact angle between the drop and the surface. This effect can be attributed to the change in the surface properties on the nanometer scale.

  • A glimpse inside the atom: energy-filtered TEM at a subatomic level

    A glimpse inside the atom energy filtered TEM at a subatomic level | Atomic orbitals of carbon atoms in graphene Image: TU Wien

    Using electron microscopes, it is possible to image individual atoms. Scientists at TU Wien have calculated how it is possible to look even further inside the atom to image individual electron orbitals, using EFTEM (energy-filtered transmission electron microoscopy).

  • A hydrophobic membrane with nanopores for highly efficient energy storage

    A hydrophobic membrane with nanopores for highly efficient energy storage | Lab set-up of a redox flow battery with the hydrophobic membrane (grey device at the bottom of the image) and two electrolyte reservoirs (bottles with yellow liquid). Image: Philipp Scheffler / DWI

    Storing fluctuating and delivering stable electric power supply are central issues when using energy from solar plants or wind power stations. Here, efficient and flexible energy storage systems need to accommodate for fluctuations in energy gain. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials (DWI), RWTH Aachen University and Hanyang University in Seoul now significantly improved a key component for the development of new energy storage systems.

  • A Molecular Switch May Serve as New Target Point for Cancer and Diabetes Therapies

    Signal receptor-containing vesicles (red) form on the inside of the cell membrane (brown) and bud off into the cell. Visualization: Thomas Splettstößer

    If certain signaling cascades are misregulated, diseases like cancer, obesity and diabetes may occur. A mechanism recently discovered by scientists at the Leibniz- Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) in Berlin and at the University of Geneva has a crucial influence on such signaling cascades and may be an important key for the future development of therapies against these diseases. The results of the study have just been published in the prestigious scientific journal 'Molecular Cell'.

  • A Pair of RNA Scissors with Many Functions

    Photo: Dominik Kopp

    Arming CRISPR/Cas systems with an enzyme that also controls the translation of genetic information into protein. CRISPR/Cas systems are known as promising “gene scissors” in the genome editing of plants, animals, and microorganisms by targeting specific regions in their DNA – and perhaps they can even be used to correct genetic defects.

  • A signal boost for molecular microscopy

    A signal boost for molecular microscopy | Schematic illustration of the experiment. Graphic: MPQ, Laser Spectroscopy Division

    Cavity-enhanced Raman-scattering reveals information on structure and properties of carbon nanotubes. The inherently weak signals are amplified by using special micro cavities as resonator, giving a general boost to Raman spectroscopy as a whole.

  • A Transparent and Thermally Stable Polyamide – 100 Percent Biobased

    From wood waste to high-performance polymers: Terpenes from turpentine are converted to bio-based, transparent and heat-stable polyamides under application of a new catalytic process. Fraunhofer IGB

    The natural substance 3-carene is a component of turpentine oil, a waste stream of the production of cellulose from wood. Up to now, this by-product has been incinerated for the most part. Fraunhofer researchers are using new catalytic processes to convert 3-carene into building blocks for biobased plastics. The new polyamides are not only transparent, but also have a high thermal stability.

  • ACHEMA 2018 – Call for Papers for Congress and PRAXISforums

    ACHEMA 2018 - World Forum of the Process Industry

    Contributions to the congress program and PRAXISforums of ACHEMA 2018 can be submitted as of now. Scientists from industry and research institutions are invited to submit their papers until September 22, 2017 via internet (http://www.achema.de/congress). About 800 presentations at ACHEMA from June 11-15, 2018 in Frankfurt / Germany will showcase results from application-oriented basic research through to applied research and development.

    The ACHEMA-Congress comprises the complete spectrum of chemical and process engineering as well as biotechnology themes. The topics range from analytics, energy supply, process design, reaction technology through to safety.

  • Added bacterial film makes new mortar resistant to water uptake

    Added bacterial film makes new mortar resistant to water uptake | The surface of the hybrid mortar (left) is covered with tiny crystalline spikes. This results in the so-called lotus effect which does not occur on the untreated mortar (right) Illustration: Stefan Grumbein / TUM

    Moisture can destroy mortar over time – for example when cracks form as a result of frost. A team of scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has found an unusual way to protect mortar from moisture: When the material is being mixed, they add a biofilm – a soft, moist substance produced by bacteria.

    Oliver Lieleg usually has little to do with bricks, mortar and concrete. As a professor of biomechanics at the Institute of Medical Engineering (IMETUM) and the Department of Mechanical Engineering, he mainly deals with biopolymer-based hydrogels or, to put it bluntly, slime formed by living organisms.These include bacterial biofilms, such as dental plaque and the slimy black coating that forms in sewage pipes. “Biofilms are generally considered undesirable and harmful. They are something you want to get rid of,” says Oliver Lieleg. “I was therefore excited to find a beneficial use for them.”

  • Aerobic processes compete for nitrogen in oxygen minimum zones

    Methodically, this was pioneering work: Without highly-sensitive oxygen sensorsit would not have been possible. The developers of the so-called STOX sensors supported Bristow in this study. Laura Tiano

    At the margins of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at ultralow oxygen concentrations, aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidizers compete for nitrogen with anaerobic microorganisms. Thus they play an important but so far overlooked role in controlling nitrogen loss in OMZs.

  • ALGEN REVOLUTIONIEREN 3D-DRUCK VON ZELLEN

    Felix Krujatz erhält für seine Doktorarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Algenbiotechnologie den Nachwuchsförderpreis der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Kirsten Mann

    Wissenschaftler der TU Dresden gewinnt Nachwuchsförderpreis der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften / Algenbiotechnologie revolutioniert 3D-Bioprinting / weltweit erster 3D-gedruckter Bioreaktor mit OLEDS macht neue Untersuchungsmethoden möglich. Felix Krujatz, Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Fakultät Maschinenwesen der TU Dresden, erhält für seine Doktorarbeit „Entwicklung und Evaluierung neuer Bioreaktorkonzepte für phototrophe Mikroorganismen“ den Nachwuchsförderpreis der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Seine Forschungsergebnisse enthalten mehrere Weltneuheiten auf dem Gebiet der Biotechnologie und können u.a. das Bioprinting menschlicher Zellen für regenerative Therapien revolutionieren sowie eine neue Generation von Bioreaktoren hervorbringen. Der Preis wird am 09. Dezember um 16:00 Uhr in Leipzig öffentlich verliehen.

  • An Unlikely Marriage Among Oxides

    Sebastian Siol showing a sample of heterostructural oxides, which could be a promising coating for smart windows. Empa

    Sebastian Siol is looking for new materials with unusual properties that were so far not accessible in experiments. To do this, he connects partners who don't really fit together: One partner forces the other into a state that would not be possible without the unlikely pairing. Siol also makes sure that the crystal bonds last in everyday life. Only then are they interesting for industrial applications.

  • Auch das Deuteron gibt Rätsel auf: Proton und Deuteron doch kleiner als gedacht?

    Auch das Deuteron gibt Rätsel auf Proton und Deuteron doch kleiner als gedacht picture1 | Karsten Schuhmann und Aldo Antognini an dem Lasersystem, das für die Laserspektroskopie eingesetzt wurde. Foto: Paul Scherrer Institut/Markus Fischer

    Das Deuteron – ein Atomkern aus nur einem Proton und einem Neutron – ist deutlich kleiner als bislang gedacht. Zu diesem Ergebnis kommt eine internationale Forschungsgruppe, die Experimente am Paul Scherrer Institut PSI durchgeführt hat. Dies passt zu einer Studie aus dem Jahr 2010, bei dem dieselbe Forschungsgruppe das Proton vermessen und damit das "Rätsel um den Protonradius" begründet hatte. Nun gibt die Deuterongrösse ein analoges Rätsel auf. Womöglich wird dies zu einer Anpassung der Rydbergkonstante führen. Die Experimente fanden an der weltweit leistungsstärksten Myonenquelle am PSI statt, wo die Forschenden mittels Laserspektroskopie sogenanntes myonisches Deuterium vermassen.

  • Aus zwei mach eins: Wie aus grünem Licht blaues wird

    Aus zwei mach eins Wie aus grünem Licht blaues wird | Photonen-Hochkonversion: Die Energieübertragung zwischen den Molekülen basiert auf einem Austausch von Elektronen (Dexter-Transfer) Abbildung: Michael Oldenburg

    Die Hochkonversion von Photonen ermöglicht, Licht effizienter zu nutzen: Zwei Lichtteilchen werden in ein Lichtteilchen mit höherer Energie umgewandelt. Forscher am KIT haben nun erstmals gezeigt, dass innere Grenzflächen zwischen oberflächengebundenen metallorganischen Gerüstverbindungen (SURMOFs) sich optimal dafür eignen – sie haben aus grünem Licht blaues Licht gemacht. Dieses Ergebnis wurde nun in der Fachzeitschrift Advanced Materials vorgestellt und eröffnet neue Möglichkeiten für optoelektronische Anwendungen wie Solarzellen oder Leuchtdioden. (DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601718)