Vaccine

  • Attacking Flu Viruses from Two Sides

    IgA1 antibodies binding to the influenza A virus antigen hemagglutinin. TSRI/UZH

    UZH researchers have discovered a new way in which certain antibodies interact with the flu virus. This previously unknown form of interaction opens up new possibilities for developing better vaccines and more efficient medication to combat the flu. Fever, shivering, headaches, and joint pains – each year millions of people around the world are affected by the flu. While most people recover after a few days, the WHO estimates that each year between 250,000 and 500,000 people die from the disease.

  • Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (mustard-coloured) engulfed by a red coloured white blood cells (neutrophil granulocyte). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

  • Detection of Bacterial Biofilms Using Covalent Lectin Binders

    Biofilm of a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stained with fluorescent dyes (green: living cells; red: dead cells). TWINCORE/Janne Thöming

    HIPS researchers produced a molecule that provides a way to visualise Pseudomonas infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen that can cause severe infections in various organs of the human body. The infection becomes particularly harmful when the bacteria agglomerate into biofilms: They do this not only to evade attacks of the immune system, but also to protect themselves from the effects of antibiotics. This results in chronic infections that are almost impossible to treat. Scientists from the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), a joint branch of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) and Saarland University, developed a molecule, which binds specifically and irreversibly to a key bacterial protein in biofilms.

  • Early blood signatures of vaccine immunogenicity

    Vaccination.

    Within seven days of vaccination, a blood test early after vaccination can predict whether vaccines based on living, modified viruses have had the desired effect. This is one of the results of a new study from a large European research collaboration on systems analysis of immune responses induced by a highly promising vaccine against Ebola in which the University of Gothenburg is participating. This result can inform and accelerate rational development of other new vaccines based on living viruses. Since the big Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2015, a couple of possible vaccines have been proposed. One of the vaccines, which is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the glycoprotein of the Zaire strain of the Ebola virus (VSV-ZEBOV), was recently shown to be extremely effective with 100 per cent efficacy against the lethal Ebola virus disease in WHO-funded studies carried out in Guinea and Sierra Leone.

  • Immune cells derived from specialised progenitors

    In the lab (from left): Prof. Dr. Joachim Schultze, Patrick Günther and Dr. Andreas Schlitzer from LIMES-Institute at University of Bonn. © Foto: Volker Lannert/Uni Bonn

    Dendritic cells are gatekeepers of Immunity. Up to now dendritic cell subtypes were thought to develop from one common progenitor. Now, in a joint effort, researchers from A*STAR Singapore Immunology Network, LIMES-Institute and cluster of excellence ImmunoSensation from University of Bonn and the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases were able to show with single cell resolution that this important component of the human immune system develops from specialized progenitors. These findings are now published in “Science” and have implications for the development and optimization of vaccines.

  • Inactivate vaccines faster and more effectively using electron beams

    Fraunhofer FEP.

    The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, one of the leading research and development partners for electron beam applications, is developing processes and equipment based on this technology for use in medicine, pharmacology, and that conserves natural resources and protects the environment. Scientists at Fraunhofer FEP in conjunction with other partners within the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft have been conducting research for several years on employing electron-beam technology in medical engineering. Low-energy inactivation of pathogens by means of electron beams (LEEI – Low-Energy Electron Irradiation) can also be used for faster manufacture of more effective vaccines. The foundation for this has been under joint development by the Fraunhofer FEP, IZI, IPA, and IGB Institutes since 2014.

  • Inflammation Triggers Unsustainable Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infection

    Under the influence of interferons, chronic viral infections cause strong inflammation. This causes the B cells to initiate an inadequate immune response. Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel

    Scientists at the University of Basel discovered a fundamental new mechanism explaining the inadequate immune defense against chronic viral infection. These results may open up new avenues for vaccine development. They have been published in the journal “Science Immunology”.

  • Machine Learning to Increase Biotechnology-based Protein Production

    The codon-specific elongation model (COSEM) simulates protein synthesis. Scientific Reports

    In a research co-operation, researchers of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) have developed a mathematical model which allows more accurate forecasts and improved output in the biotechnology-based protein synthesis in host organism. The new method offers many and varied applications in biotechnology including the development of vaccines. Scientific Reports has published an article on the results in its online version of 17 May 2019.

  • New Approach in the Fight Against Viruses

    Multi-Electrode Layout for Parallel Analysis of Multiple Cell Samples in Microfluic-Chips. Fraunhofer EMFT, Bernd Müller.

    In the ViroSens project, researchers from the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Sulzbach and Regensburg are working together with industrial partners on a novel analytical method to make the potency testing of vaccines more efficient and cost-effective. The method combines electrochemical sensor technology and biotechnology and, for the first time, enables a completely automated analysis of the infection status of test cells.

  • New procedure for producing safe and more effective vaccines

    Foto Fraunhofer FEP

    A consortium of four Fraunhofer Institutes (the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI, Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, and the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB) is developing a way of inactivating viruses and other pathogens based on low energy electron irradiation. This may aid the manufacture of more effective, safe and also more cost-effective vaccines.