Metals

  • Chemists connect three components with new coupling reaction

    The new reaction, explained using plastic building bricks: In a single reaction, three (bottom) instead of two (top right) chemical components are linked via carbon-carbon bonds. Photo: WWU/Ludger Tebben

    In the current issue of the "Science" magazine, a team of chemists led by Prof. Armido Studer from the Institute of Organic Chemistry at Münster University present a new approach which enables three – and not, as previously, two – chemical components to be "coupled" in one single reaction without any transition metal.

    In the current issue of the "Science" magazine, chemists at Münster University present a new approach which for the first time enables three – and not, as previously, two – chemical components to be "coupled" in one single reaction, without any metals to aid the process. The researchers succeeded in producing not only pharmaceutically relevant compounds containing fluorine, but also various γ-lactones. These organic compounds occur widely in various types of fruit and also, for example, as flavouring substances in whisky and cognac.

  • Efficient Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries – Launch of Research Project NEW-BAT

    A new method will allow to recover valuable battery materials. © K. Selsam-Geißler, Fraunhofer ISC

    Funding was granted by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to develop an innovative recycling process for valuable battery materials to be reinserted into the battery supply chain. The goal of the NEW-BAT project is a robust, energy efficient and economically viable system with wide application potential. Lithium-ion batteries are key elements in electromobility and a successful energy turnaround. The widespread use of these energy storage devices will come along with large quantities of spent batteries which itself constitute a valuable source of raw materials.

  • Environmentally Friendly Steel Coatings: Fraunhofer ILT Wins Steel Innovation Award

    On June 13, 2018, the Fraunhofer ILT team took 2nd place at the Steel Innovation Awards in Berlin in the “Steel in Research and Development” category for their EHLA process. © Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

    Once every three years, the German steel industry presents its Steel Innovation Awards. The purpose of this initiative is to recognize innovations that are helping to ensure this material remains a viable choice for the long term. The jury considers not just products made from steel, but also innovative processes such as Extreme High-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA). For the development of the EHLA process, researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen won the Joseph von Fraunhofer Prize in 2017. On June 13, 2018, the researchers were honoured with the 2nd Prize of the Steel Innovation Award in the “Steel in Research and Development” category.

  • ERC Grant: Nanopartikel-Katalysatoren in Form bringen

    Beatriz Roldán Cuenya erhält eine renommierte Förderung vom Europäischen Forschungsrat. © RUB, Marquard

    Prof. Dr. Beatriz Roldán Cuenya von der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) erhält einen der renommierten Consolidator Grants vom Europäischen Forschungsrat (ERC). Die Förderung beläuft sich auf zwei Millionen Euro für fünf Jahre. Die Wissenschaftlerin strebt an, mit den Mitteln neue Einblicke in die katalytischen Fähigkeiten von Nanopartikeln zu gewinnen, insbesondere wie sich Größe, Form und chemischer Zustand der Partikel während einer katalytischen Reaktion ändern. Winzige Metallpartikel, gerade einmal 1 bis 50 Nanometer groß, können als Katalysatoren für verschiedene Reaktionen dienen. Mehrere Parameter beeinflussen die katalytische Aktivität der Nanopartikel: ihre Größe und Form, das Trägermaterial, an das die Partikel gebunden sind, die Umgebung sowie der chemische Zustand der Partikel, also zum Beispiel ob sie als reines Metall oder als Oxid vorliegen.

  • Extremely Hard yet Metallically Conductive: Bayreuth Researchers Develop Novel Material with High-tech Prospects

    The structure of rhenium nitride pernitride containing single nitrogen atoms (red) and N-N nitrogen dumbbells (blue). Larger balls show rhenium atoms. Illustration: Maxim Bykov. Illustration: Maxim Bykov.

    An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bayreuth has produced a previously unknown material: Rhenium nitride pernitride. Thanks to combining properties that were previously considered incompatible, it looks set to become highly attractive for technological applications. Indeed, it is a super-hard metallic conductor that can withstand extremely high pressures like a diamond. A process now developed in Bayreuth opens up the possibility of producing rhenium nitride pernitride and other technologically interesting materials in sufficiently large quantity for their properties characterisation. The new findings are presented in "Nature Communications".

  • Harder 3D-printed tools – Researchers from Dresden Introduce new Process for Hardmetal Industry

    Hardmetal sample with complex geometry on FFF standard printer Hage3D 140 L, in which larger components can be perspectively printed as well. © Fraunhofer IKTS

    Extremely hard tools are required in forming technology, metal-cutting and process engineering. They are conventionally made by powder pressing. Although this achieves a high degree of hardness, it is often necessary to carry out a complex and therefore expensive post-processing. Additive manufacturing enables complex geometries, but has been limited in terms of hardness and component size so far. Researchers at the Fraunhofer IKTS in Dresden have now adapted the 3D printing process Fused Filament Fabrication for hardmetals. The development meets all requirements for the first time.

  • Innovative Powder Revolutionises 3D Metal Printing

    The quality of the surfaces printed with NewGen SLM Powder (upper row) is many times higher than that of conventional powders. © IMAT – TU Graz

    At TU Graz a steel powder has been developed for additive manufacturing which decisively simplifies the production of complex components. In a spin-off funding programme, work is now being done on market maturity. Shorter production times, lower costs and fewer production faults. These are just some of the reasons why the metalworking industry is using additive methods more and more frequently. This is also reflected in the market for stainless steel powder used in additive manufacturing. According to estimates, this is increasing by more than 30 per cent per year.

  • Intelligente Filter für innovative Leichtbaukonstruktionen

    Schaumkeramikfilter auf Basis von Aluminiumoxid für die Aluminiumschmelzefiltration

    Hochtechnologie-Produkte der Zukunft basieren auf hochreinen, fehlerfreien Werkstoffen, die eine gleichmäßige Einstellung der chemischen Zusammensetzung und eine verstärkte Kontrolle des Reinheitsgrades der metallischen Werkstoffe erfordern. Wissenschaftler und Doktoranden aus elf Instituten der TU Bergakademie Freiberg erforschen seit 5 Jahren, wie anorganische nichtmetallische Einschlüsse in Metallschmelzen durch den Einsatz intelligenter Filterwerkstoffe bzw. Filtersysteme aus Keramik reduziert werden können.
    Nun präsentieren sie Forschung und Ergebnisse des SFB 920 „Multifunktionale Filter für die Metallschmelzefiltration - ein Beitrag zu Zero Defect Materials“ auf der CellMAT 2016.

  • It Takes Two: Structuring Metal Surfaces Efficiently with Lasers

    A combination of nanosecond and picosecond pulses make the precision manufacture of functional surfaces also efficient. Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

    In the automotive industry, more and more surfaces are getting a microstructure treatment. Whether they are added to cylinders or dashboards, functional surfaces are all the rage. Able to offer virtually unlimited precision, lasers are the right tool for the job. To ensure that productivity matches precision, development is under way on a machine that will be able to efficiently process even large surfaces thanks to a combination of two different pulse types. Ultrashort pulse lasers have for many years been the tool of choice for processing micromaterials. No matter what the material, ultrashort pulse lasers can ablate even in the micrometer range with high precision. The only catch is that it takes plenty of time concerning the industrial application.

  • Laser Processes for Multi-Functional Composites

    Trimming of a hybrid car roof bow made of glass and carbon-fiber reinforced plastic. Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

    Since composites combine the advantages of dissimilar materials, they can be used to exploit great potential in lightweight construction. At JEC World 2019 in Paris in March, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will present a broad range of laser-based technologies for the efficient production and processing of composite materials. Visitors to the joint booth of the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Construction AZL, Hall 5A/D17, will gain insight into joining and cutting processes as well as surface structuring.

  • Light and Strong: Hybrid Lightweight Components Made of Steel and Fiber-reinforced Plastics

    Part of a hybrid rocker panel locally functionalized using laser-assisted tape placement. Foto: Fraunhofer IPT

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in demand for lighter components for applications in mobility and transport in response to the need to save weight, and therefore energy and resources. Hybrid components made of steel, locally functionalized with fiber-reinforced plastics combine high mechanical performance with low weight. Demand for manufacturing processes conducive to cost-effective mass-production is burgeoning.

  • Light-induced Superconductivity Under High Pressure

    Light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 was investigated at high pressure in a Diamond Anvil Cell. Jörg Harms, MPSD

    A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

  • Lightweight Metal Foams Become Bone Hard and Explosion Proof After Being Nanocoated

    (c) Saarland University

    Strong enough not only for use in impact protection systems in cars, but able to absorb the shock waves produced by a detonation. Those are just some of the properties shown by the metallic foams developed by materials scientists Stefan Diebels and Anne Jung at Saarland University. Their super lightweight and extremely strong metal foams can be customized for a wide range of applications. The inspiration for the new foam system came from nature: bones. Using a patented coating process, the Saarbrücken team is able to manufacture highly stable, porous metallic foams that can be used, for example, in lightweight construction projects.

  • Pioneer of Materials Research

    Structural representation of silver-capped polyoxopalladate {Ag4Pd13} in side view (left) and top view (right). Pd dark blue, Ag orange, As green, O red. Kortz / Jacobs University

    “You have to do things others have not yet done; Combine chemicals that others have not yet combined; Under conditions that have not yet been tried”. Ulrich Kortz sees himself as a passionate basic researcher. In 2008, the Chemistry Professor at Jacobs University in Bremen discovered a new class of compounds, the polyoxopalladates. Now the scientist and his team have developed another subclass of these functional materials. For the first time, they have combined two precious metals, palladium and silver, in a molecular metal-oxo assembly – with great benefits for science and industry.

  • Quick and Safe Laser Joining of Steel-aluminum Mixed Connections

    Quick and safe joining of steel and aluminum using remote laser welding. Photo: LZH

    For the automotive industry of the future, load-adapted and lightweight components made from steel-aluminum mixed joints are required. Within the LaserLeichter project, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed a laser welding process for the quick and safe joining of three-dimensional structures made of steel and aluminum.

  • Racing Electrons Under Control

    The driving laser field (red) 'shakes' electrons in graphene at ultrashort time scales, shown as violet and blue waves. A second laser pulse (green) can control this wave and thus determine the direction of the electron wave. Image: FAU/Christian Heide

    Being able to control electronic systems using light waves instead of voltage signals is the dream of physicists all over the world. The advantage is that electromagnetic light waves oscillate at petaherz frequency. This means that computers in the future could operate at speeds a million times faster than those of today. Scientists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have now come one step closer to achieving this goal as they have succeeded in using ultra-short laser impulses to precisely control electrons in graphene.

  • Ultraclean Metal-Like Conductivity in Semimetallic WP2

    WP2 and MoP2 exhibit both very large conductivity as well as extremely high MR together due to the robust Weyl points and hydrodynamic effects at low temperature. Nitesh Kumar/ MPI CPfS

    Ultraclean metals show high conductivity with a high number of charge carriers, whereas semiconductors and semimetals with low charge carriers normally show a low conductivity. This scenario in semimetals can be changed if one can protect the carriers from scattering. In a recent study, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden, in collaboration with High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML-EMFL), Netherlands; Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD-EMFL) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland show extremely large conductivity in a semimetal, WP2. The conductivity of ~ 3 x 108 -1cm-1 in WP2 at 2 K is comparable to highly conducting metals like potassium and copper of the similar purity.

  • Waterproof Thanks to Rapid Lasers

    The Fraunhofer IWS technology known as "remoweld®FLEX" is suitable for particularly demanding processes, especially for components to be sealed media-tight against water and other undesirable environmental influences. © Fraunhofer IWS Dresden

    Fraunhofer engineers from Dresden have developed a new laser welding process employing a fast oscillating laser beam. This technology, known as "remoweld®FLEX", is suitable for particularly demanding processes – especially for components to be sealed media-tight against water and other undesirable environmental influences. These include housings for electrical and electronic components, heat exchangers and coolings, which have previously been regarded as hardly weldable and often consist of die-cast aluminum. The Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS and Maschinenfabrik Arnold from Ravensburg were both involved in the research development.