Quantum dots (QD) are nanoscale semiconductor devices that tightly confine either electrons or electron holes in all three spatial dimensions. They can be made via several possible routes including colloidal synthesis, plasma synthesis, or mechanical fabrication. The electronic properties of the quantum dots fall between those of bulk semiconductors and those of discrete molecules of comparable size, and optoelectronic properties such as band gap, can be tuned as a function of particle size and shape for a given composition. For example, the photoluminescence of a QD can be manipulated to specific wavelengths by controlling particle diameter.

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Quantum dots