Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a very powerful and sensitive method for the characterization of the electronic structures of materials with unpaired electrons. There is a variety of ESR techniques, each with its own advantages. In continuous wave ESR (CW-ESR), the sample is subjected to a continuous beam of microwave irradiation of fixed frequency and the magnetic field is swept. Different microwave frequencies may be used and they are denoted as S-band (3.5 GHz), X-band (9.25 GHz), K-band (20 GHz), Q-band (35 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz). Other techniques, such as electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies, record in essence the NMR spectra of paramagnetic species.