Germanium (Ge) Nanoparticles, nanopowder nanodots or are black spherical high surface area metal particles. Nanoscale Germanium Particles are also available in passivated and in Ultra high purity and high purity and carbon coated and dispersed forms. They are also available as a dispersion through the AE Nanofluid production group. Nanofluids are generally defined as suspended nanoparticles in solution either using surfactant or surface charge technology. Nanofluid dispersion and coating selection technical guidance is also available. Other nanostructures include nanorods, nanowhiskers, nanohorns, nanopyramids and other nanocomposites. Surface functionalized nanoparticles allow for the particles to be preferentially adsorbed at the surface interface using chemically bound polymers.