Nanomaterials

Measured in the nanoscale, nanomaterials are materials that have at least one external dimension measuring 100 nanometers or less or internal structures measuring 100 nm or less. These may be present in the form of particles, tubes, rods, fibers or other geometries.

Examples of nanomaterials: Titanium dioxide is used as a white color pigment, for hydrophilic and antimicrobial surface coatings and for self-cleaning surface coatings.

Graphene another popular category of nanomaterials, is used for surface treatments, the new field of spintronics and as raw material for the fabrication of Carbon nanotubes and other carbon-based nanomaterials

  • Applications of Graphene

    Application of Graphene

    In order to get introduced to Graphene, a good point of start would be Graphite. Graphite is a naturally-occurring form of crystalline carbon. It is a native element mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Regarding its composition, Graphite is a stack of carbon-atom layers.

  • Batterie und Elektronik aus dem Tintenstrahldrucker

    Batterie und Elektronik aus dem Tintenstrahldrucker | Schaltkreise aus dem Tintenstrahldrucker sind so flexibel wie das Papier auf dem sie gedruckt sind.

    Der südkoreanischer Forscher Sang-Young Lee hat einen handelsüblichen Drucker so umgebaut, dass er Energiespeicher und einfache Schaltkreise druckt. Ziel dabei ist, tragbare Technik unsichtbar in beliebigen Bauformen zu integrieren.

    Unter einem Tisch im Labor von Sang-Young Lee befindet sich ein normaler, etwas abgenutzter Tintenstrahldrucker, den er so modifiziert hat, dass er elektronische Schaltkreise und Superkondensatoren produziert. Dazu entleert Lee die Tintenbehälter und befüllt sie mit speziellen Batterie-Materialien und leitfähiger Tinte. Auf behandeltem Papier druckt das Gerät dann flexible, haltbare Superkondensatoren und einfache Schaltkreis-Komponenten, zum Beispiel in Form einer hochaufgelösten Karte der Republik Korea, Blumen oder Logos.

  • Better Contrast Agents Based on Nanoparticles

    Scientists at the University of Basel have developed nanoparticles which can serve as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. This new type of nanoparticles produce around ten times more contrast than common contrast agents and are responsive to specific environments. The journal Chemical Communications has published these results.

  • Breakthrough in materials science: Kiel research team can bond metals with nearly all surfaces

    The targeted etching process of “nanoscale-sculpturing” roughens the upper layer of metal (here aluminium, 20 µm = 0.02 mm), thereby creating a 3D-structure with tiny hooks.   Melike Baytekin‐Gerngroß

    How metals can be used depends particularly on the characteristics of their surfaces. A research team at Kiel University has discovered how they can change the surface properties without affecting the mechanical stability of the metals or changing the metal characteristics themselves. This fundamentally new method is based on using an electro-chemical etching process, in which the uppermost layer of a metal is roughened on a micrometer scale in a tightly-controlled manner. Through this “nanoscale-sculpturing” process, metals such as aluminium, titanium, or zinc can permanently be joined with nearly all other materials, become water-repellent, or improve their biocompatibility.

  • Carbon Nanotubes Couple Light and Matter

    The formation of exciton-polaritons through strong light-matter coupling is a promising strategy for producing electrically pumped carbon-based lasers. Scientists from Heidelberg University and the University of St Andrews (Scotland) have now, for the first time, demonstrated this strong light-matter coupling in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Figure: Arko Graf (Heidelberg University)

    Scientists from Heidelberg and St Andrews work on the basics of new light sources from organic semiconductors. With their research on nanomaterials for optoelectronics, scientists from Heidelberg University and the University of St Andrews (Scotland) have succeeded for the first time to demonstrate a strong interaction of light and matter in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Such strong light-matter coupling is an important step towards realising new light sources, such as electrically pumped lasers based on organic semiconductors. They would be, amongst other things, important for applications in telecommunications. These results are the outcome of a cooperation between Prof. Dr Jana Zaumseil (Heidelberg) and Prof. Dr Malte Gather (St Andrews), and have been published in “Nature Communications”.

  • Hamburger Wissenschaftler entwickeln Nanomaterialien für die Umwandlung von Wärme in Strom

    Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Hamburg (TUHH), des Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG) in Kooperation mit der kanadischen University of Alberta haben ein neuartiges optisches Nanomaterial hergestellt, das es ermöglicht, Wärme direkt in Strahlung und danach mit hoher Effizienz in elektrische Energie umzuwandeln. Das neu entwickelte Nanomaterial soll einen wichtigen Beitrag leisten, moderne Industriegesellschaften auf ressourcenschonenden Energieeinsatz umzustellen. Publiziert wird die Arbeit am 6. Juni 2016 in „Nature Communications“, einer der weltweit wichtigsten Fachzeit-schriften für fachübergreifende, wissenschaftliche Forschungsarbeiten.

  • How nanotechnology is going to shape the electronics industry

    How nanotechnology is going to shape the electronics industry

     

    Electronics industry is one of the most interesting industry sector - if not the most interesting - for the application of nanotechnology. Already in present time, nanotechnology has already been introduced to the electronic industry. The critical length scale of the integrated circuits are already in nano scale. In this particular article few of the most popular product segments will be discussed.

  • Lithium-Ionen Akkus: Kapazität kann um das Sechsfache gesteigert werden

    Lithium Ionen Akkus Kapazität kann um das Sechsfache gesteigert werden | Lithium-Ionen wandern in die Schicht aus kristallinem Silizium ein. Im Lauf der Beladung bildet sich eine 20 Nanometer dünne Schicht (rot) in der Si-Elektrode, die extrem viele Lithium-Atome aufnimmt Abbildung: HZB

    Lithium-Ionen-Akkus könnten ihre Kapazität um das Sechsfache erhöhen, wenn ihre Anode statt aus Graphit aus Silizium bestünde. Ein Team vom Institut für weiche Materie und funktionale Materialien des Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) hat erstmals detailliert beobachtet, wie Lithium-Ionen in Silizium einwandern. Ihre Arbeit zeigt, dass schon extrem dünne Silizium-Schichten ausreichen, um die theoretisch mögliche Kapazität des Akkus zu realisieren. Die Arbeit ist veröffentlicht in der Zeitschrift ACSnano der American Chemical Socity (DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b02032)

  • Manipulating superconducting plasma waves with terahertz light

    Manipulating superconducting plasma waves with terahertz light | Josephson plasma wave in a layered superconductor, parametrically amplified through a strong terahertz light pulse. Image: J.M. Harms/MPI for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter

    Terahertz illumination amplifies Josephson plasma waves in high temperature superconductors, potentially paving the way for stabilizing fluctuating superconductivity

    Most systems in nature are inherently nonlinear, meaning that their response to any external excitation is not proportional to the strength of the applied stimulus. Nonlinearities are observed, for example, in macroscopic phenomena such as the flow of fluids like water and air or of currents in electronic circuits. Manipulating the nonlinear behavior is therefore inherently interesting for achieving control over several processes. An international team of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter at CFEL in Hamburg utilized the nonlinear interaction between a terahertz light field and a superconducting plasma wave in a high temperature cuprate superconductor to amplify the latter. This resulted in a more coherent superconductor, which is less susceptible to thermal fluctuations. Due to the non-dissipative superconducting nature of the plasma wave, the study opens up new avenues for “plasmonics”, a field of science utilizing plasma waves for transmitting information. These findings are reported in the journal Nature Physics.

  • Manipulation of the characteristics of magnetic materials

    In the simulation, magnetic signals spread along the domain walls in a few nanoseconds. The signals behave in a wave-like manner, with the initially high amplitude rapidly becoming smaller. McCord

    Magnets are not everywhere equally magnetized, but automatically split up into smaller areas, so-called magnetic domains. The walls between the domains are of particular importance: they determine the magnetic properties of the material. A research team of material scientists from Kiel University is working on artificially creating domain walls to be able to modify in a controlled way the behaviour of magnets on a nanometre scale. In the long term, this method could also be used for high-speed and energy-efficient data transfer. The research results were recently published in the renowned journal “Scientific Reports”.

  • Meteoriteneinschlag im Nano-Format

    Mit energiereichen Ionen lassen sich erstaunliche Nanostrukturen auf Kristalloberflächen erzeugen. Experimente und Berechnungen der TU Wien können diese Effekte nun erklären.

  • Multi-organ platform for risk assessment of nanomaterials - Fraunhofer IBMT in project HISENTS

    Logo HISENTS

    European scientists develop a multimodular microchip platform for predicting the behaviour of nanomaterials in the body. Nanomaterials are already part of everyday life in our modern society. New applications, along with continuously rising quantities being produced, have led to an increased exposure to nanomaterials for both people and the environment. Predicting the behaviour of nanomaterials in organisms and extensive risk assessments are currently difficult because we are missing prediction models.

  • Nanomaterialien und andere neuartige Werkstoffe

    Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung

    Nanomaterialien und andere neuartige Werkstoffe anwendungssicher und umweltverträglich entwickeln und nutzen - Bundesbehörden schreiben gemeinsame Forschungsstrategie "Nanotechnologie - Gesundheits- und Umweltrisiken von Nanomaterialien" fort

  • National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan for 2016 is now accessible!

    The NNI

    Every three years, NNI agencies prepare an updated NNI Strategic Plan according to the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act of 2003. Therefore the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) recently announced that the new 2016 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan is now accessible.

  • New record in materials research: 1 terapascals in a laboratory

    Rekord in der Hochdruckforschung 1 Terapascal erstmals erreicht und überschritten picture 2 | Once the spherical nano-crystalline diamonds are split in two, the two halves are prepared for installation in a double-sided diamond anvil cell. Electron microscope image: Leonid Dubrovinsky and Natalia Dubrovinskaia

    An international team of researchers headed by Prof. Dr. Natalia Dubrovinskaia and Prof. Dr. Leonid Dubrovinsky of the University of Bayreuth has succeeded in creating a pressure of 1 trillion pascals in a laboratory. A study published in Science Advances is opening up new research prospects in physics, solid state chemistry, materials science, geophysics, and astrophysics. To set this record, a double-sided diamond anvil cell was used:between the two surfaces of a common diamond anvil cell, two nano-crystalline microscopic diamond hemispheres are placed. The recordpressure can be applied to samples paced between those hemispheres.

  • Open access infrastructure for a pilot line of nano particle and nano-composites

    “What opportunities does nanotechnology provide in general, offer nanoparticles for my products and processes?” So far, this question cannot be answered easily. Preparation and modification of nanoparticles and their further processing requires special technical infrastructure and complex knowledge. For small and medium businesses the construction of this infrastructure “just on luck” is often not worth it. Even large companies shy away from the risks. As a result many good ideas just stay in the drawer.

  • Rekord in der Hochdruckforschung: 1 Terapascal erstmals erreicht und überschritten

    Rekord in der Hochdruckforschung 1 Terapascal erstmals erreicht und überschritten picture 2 | Nachdem ein kugelförmiger nanokristalliner Diamant in zwei Halbkugeln getrennt worden ist, werden die Halbkugeln für den Einsatz in einer doppelseitigen Diamantstempelzelle vorbereitet. Elektronenmikroskopische Aufnahme: Leonid Dubrovinsky und Natalia Dubrovinskaia

    Einem internationalen Forschungsteam um Prof. Dr. Natalia Dubrovinskaia und Prof. Dr. Leonid Dubrovinsky von der Universität Bayreuth ist es erstmals gelungen, im Labor einen Druck von 1 Terapascal (= 1.000.000.000.000 Pascal) zu erzeugen. Dieser Druck ist dreimal höher als der Druck, der im Zentrum der Erde herrscht. Die in 'Science Advances' veröffentlichte Studie eröffnet neue Forschungsmöglichkeiten für die Physik und Chemie der Festkörper, die Materialwissenschaft, die Geophysik und die Astrophysik. Um diesen Rekord aufzustellen wurde eine zweistufigen Diamantstempelzelle verwendet: Zwischen den Flächen zweier großer Diamanten werden zwei nanokristalline mikroskopische Diamanthalbkugeln platziert. Eine zwischen ihnen platzierte Probe kann dann diesen extremen Drücken ausgesetzt werden.

  • Selbstorganisierende Nano-Tinten bilden durch Stempeldruck leitfähige und transparente Gitter

    Selbstorganisierende Nano Tinten bilden durch Stempeldruck leitfähige und transparente Gitter | Leitfähige und transparente Gitterstrukturen durch Stempeldruck mit selbstorganisierenden Nano-Tinten. Image: INM

    Transparente Elektronik findet sich heute zum Beispiel in Dünnschicht-Displays, Solarzellen und Touchscreens. Zunehmend ist Elektronik auch auf biegsamen Oberflächen von Interesse. Das erfordert druckbare Materialien, die transparent sind und deren Leitfähigkeit auch bei Verformung hoch bleibt. Dafür haben Forscher des INM – Leibniz-Institut für Neue Materialien eine neue selbstorganisierende Nano-Tinte mit einem Stempeldruckverfahren kombiniert. Damit stellten sie Gitterstrukturen her, deren Strukturbreiten unter einem Mikrometer liegen.

  • Ten daily products with nanotechnology

    Nanotechnology defined as the science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nano meters has been around for something over 40 years now. Still when I talk about nanotechnology, general people perceive it as a technology of the future. At times I still get questions like “what is nanotechnology?” On this trying to explain on basis of the given definition mostly leaves a vague image of what nanotechnology really is. In my experience, I have always found it more effective to give examples of nanotechnology. This even more so when these are in their daily lives. That is where I would be dedicating this article towards. Here are the ten daily life products with nanotechnology.

  • The link between nanostructured electrode materials and Samsung’s debacle

    Schematic of lithium-air battery charge and discharge cycles.

    As recently has been announced, the South Korean multinational electronics company SΛMSUNG had to recall its flagship Galaxy Note 7 smartphone with the reason that battery problems cause the “explosion” of the phones during or after charging.
    In regard to the recent events, the German news site heise online published an interview with battery researcher Bai-Xiang Xu from the Technical University Darmstadt in which she explains the technical background of the Note 7 debacle.