DNA/RNA

A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all modern living organisms. DNA's genes are expressed, or manifested, through the proteins that its nucleotides produce with the help of RNA.

The information found in DNA determines which traits are to be created, activated, or deactivated, while the various forms of RNA do the work.

  • Big data processing enables worldwide bacterial analysis

    S. Aureus colonies © Nanobay

    Sequencing data from biological samples such as the skin, intestinal tissues, or soil and water are usually archived in public databases. This allows researchers from all over the globe to access them. However, this has led to the creation of extremely large quantities of data. To be able to explore all these data, new evaluation methods are necessary. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have developed a bioinformatics tool which allows to search all bacterial sequences in databases in just a few mouse clicks and find similarities or check whether a particular sequence exists.

  • Blut-Abbau im Akkord: Zell-Einwanderer schützen vor Eisenvergiftung

    Blut Abbau im Akkord Zell Einwanderer schützen vor Eisenvergiftung | Können Monozyten nicht in die Leber einwandern und sich zu Eisen-verwertenden Zellen entwickeln, lagert sich giftiges Eisen in Organen wie der Niere ab. (Eisen-frei: blau, Eisen-Protein-Komplex:braun) Abbildung: CSB Massachusetts General Hospital

    Freiburger Forscher entschlüsseln, wie der Körper rote Blutkörperchen abbaut, ohne sich dabei selbst zu vergiften. Der neue Ansatz könnte Komplikationen nach Blutvergiftungen und Hämolyse vermindern.

  • Computers Made of Genetic Material? - ZDR researchers conduct electricity using DNA-based nanowires

    Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them.

    Tinier than the AIDS virus – that is currently the circumference of the smallest transistors. The industry has shrunk the central elements of their computer chips to fourteen nanometers in the last sixty years. Conventional methods, however, are hitting physical boundaries. An alternative could be the self-organization of complex components from molecules and atoms. Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and Paderborn University have now made an important advance: the physicists conducted a current through gold-plated nanowires, which independently assembled themselves from single DNA strands. Their results have been published in the scientific journal Langmuir.

  • Die Blitzabwehr der Bakterien: Immunzellen werden direkt beim ersten Kontakt getötet

    Die Blitzabwehr der Bakterien Immunzellen werden direkt beim ersten Kontakt getötet | Die genetische Ausstattung ihres Virulenzplasmids ermöglicht es Bakterien der Gattung Yersinia, die Immunabwehr auszuschalten. HZI/M. Rohde

    Dringen Bakterien in den Körper eines Menschen oder eines Tieres ein, werden sie vom Immunsystem als fremd erkannt. Daraufhin versuchen die Immunzellen, diese Fremdkörper zu beseitigen. Wissenschaftler des Helmholtz-Zentrums für Infektionsforschung (HZI) in Braunschweig haben nun gemeinsam mit Kollegen der Universität Umeå in Schweden herausgefunden, wie es Bakterien der Gattung Yersinia schaffen, Immunzellen direkt beim ersten Kontakt abzutöten: Sie vervielfältigen die genetische Information für ihre krankmachenden Werkzeuge und schießen gleichzeitig Substanzen in die Immunzelle, die sie schnell inaktivieren und umbringen.

  • DigiWest® multiplex protein profiling technology published in Nature Communications

    The NMI is a service provider for Micro Channel Systems. © NMI

    Reutlingen, Germany, September 26, 2016 – The Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University of Tübingen (NMI), a private research foundation, and its contract research provider NMI TT Pharmaservices today announced the publication of their proprietary DigiWest® protein profiling method in the peer-reviewed scientific journal Nature Communications.

  • Dissecting bacterial infections at the single-cell level

    Left: a macrophage (nucleus in blue) infected with a non-replicating bacteria in yellow indicated by an arrow and on the right infected with bacteria that has replicated (red). (Picture: Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba)

    Technological advances are making the analysis of single bacterial infected human cells feasible, Würzburg researchers have used this technology to provide new insight into the Salmonella infection process. The study has just been published in “Nature Microbiology”. Infectious diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The development of novel therapies or vaccines requires improved understanding of how viruses, pathogenic fungi or bacteria cause illnesses.

  • DNA structure influences the function of transcription factors

    Spatial arrangement of the binding site and neighbouring segments modulates gene activity

  • Doppelschlag gegen Bakterien und Viren

    Doppelschlag gegen Bakterien und Viren picture1 | Das Bakterium Staphylococcus aureus (rot) bildet häufig Resistenzen gegen Antibiotika aus und ist besonders für Patienten gefährlich, die bereits unter einer Infektion mit dem AIDS-Erreger HIV leiden Abbildung: HZI/M. Rohde

    Dualer Wirkstoff hemmt die Vermehrung des AIDS-Erregers HIV und von resistenten MRSA-Bakterien zugleich, indem er sowohl virale als auch baktrielle Enzyme hemmt.

  • Faster diagnosis of sepsis pathogens

    High-throughput sequencing of sepsis pathogens at Fraunhofer IGB. Fraunhofer IGB

    Microbial pathogens can be diagnosed unambiguously and within just 24 hours by means of high-throughput sequencing of their genetic makeup and special bioinformatics evaluation algorithms. Fraunhofer researchers have validated this in a clinical study with sepsis patients. The researchers present the NGS diagnosis platform at Medica in Düsseldorf from November 14–17, 2016. It is estimated that in Germany alone around 150,000 people fall ill with sepsis every year; despite medical advances, between 30 and 50 percent of the patients still die of the consequences. One of the reasons for the high mortality rate: the diagnosis often comes too late for the lifesaving therapy with antibiotics that only combat the specific causative pathogen.

  • High yield at high selectivity – lentiviral vectors with Nipah envelope proteins developed

    High yield at high selectivity lentiviral vectors with Nipah envelope proteins developed | Left: EM image of the vector with envelope proteins (arrows). Right: Structure of a surface receptor (Her2/neu). Binding of the vector in the green zone allows membrane fusion and gene transfer. Source: Bender RR et al.: PLOS Pathog. 09. June 2016 and PEI

    To transfer genes exclusively into the patient’s therapy relevant cells is in the focus of current research approaches in gene therapy. Researchers of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have succeeded in modifying envelope proteins of Nipah virus (NiV) and to combine them with lentiviruses in such a way that they can now be used for a highly selective and efficient gene transfer to selected cells. Another advantage of these new vectors is that they can be produced at higher yields, which is required for clinical applications. PLOS Pathogens reports on these research results in its online edition of 09.06.2016.

  • High-speed camera snaps bio-switch in action

    The riboswitch 'button' before, during and after coupling of the ligand (green), from left to right. Credit: Yun-Xing Wang and Jason Stagno, National Cancer Institute

    X-ray experiment opens new route to study biochemical reactions. With a powerful X-ray camera, scientists have watched a genetic switch at work for the first time. The study led by Yun-Xing Wang from the National Cancer Institute of the U.S. reveals the ultrafast dynamics of a riboswitch, a gene regulator that can switch individual genes on and off. The innovative technique used for this investigation opens up a completely new avenue for studying numerous fundamental biochemical reactions, as the team reports in a fast-track publication in the journal Nature.

  • How Does Friendly Fire Happen in the Pancreas?

    Treatment with an antagomir directed against miR92a results in reduced attacks of immune cells (green) on the insulin (white) producing beta cells directly in the pancreas. Moreover, the treatment leads to more regulatory T cells (red) able to protect the beta cells. Source: Helmholtz Zentrum München

    In type 1 diabetes, the body attacks its own insulin-producing cells. Scientists at Helmholtz Zentrum München, partner in the German Center for Diabetes Research, and their colleagues at Technical University of Munich have now reported in the journal ‘PNAS’ about a mechanism used by the immune system to prepare for this attack. They were able to inhibit this process through targeted intervention and are now hoping this will lead to new possibilities for treatment.

  • Kaiserslautern physicists observe diffusion of individual atoms in light bath

    First author Farina Kindermann and Professor Artur Widera in front of a quantum gas experi-mental setup for investigations on single atoms. University of Kaiserslautern/Thomas Koziel

    In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. Quantum physicists at University of Kaiserslautern have published their results together with colleagues in the renowned scientific journal “Nature Physics”.

  • MHH-Forscher reparieren geschädigte Blutgefäße mit Nanopartikel-Therapie

    Gefäße der Halsschlagader im Mausmodell. Quelle: MHH/Sonnenschein.

    MHH-Wissenschaftler fördern Heilung von Gefäßinnenwänden mit mikroRNAs / Veröffentlichung in der Fachzeitschrift Circulation. Blutgefäße sind innen mit einer schützenden Zellschicht, dem Endothel, ausgekleidet. Im Laufe des Lebens nutzt sich diese Schicht ab, die Gefäßewände verdicken und verkalken. Diese Veränderungen sind häufig Ursache für Erkrankungen wie Herzinfarkt oder Schlaganfall. Forscher der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover (MHH) haben eine neue Therapie zur Heilung derart geschädigter Gefäße entwickelt.

  • Multi-organ platform for risk assessment of nanomaterials - Fraunhofer IBMT in project HISENTS

    Logo HISENTS

    European scientists develop a multimodular microchip platform for predicting the behaviour of nanomaterials in the body. Nanomaterials are already part of everyday life in our modern society. New applications, along with continuously rising quantities being produced, have led to an increased exposure to nanomaterials for both people and the environment. Predicting the behaviour of nanomaterials in organisms and extensive risk assessments are currently difficult because we are missing prediction models.

  • Multiplexed Morse signals from cells

    How many sorts, in how many copies? The biochemical processes that take place in cells require specific molecules to congregate and interact in specific locations. A novel type of high-resolution microscopy developed at the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in Martinsried and Harvard University already allows researchers to visualize these molecular complexes and identify their constituents. Now they can also determine the numbers of each molecular species in these structures. Such quantitative information is valuable for the understanding of cellular mechanisms and how they are altered in disease states. The new technique is described in Nature Methods.

  • Nanobauteile aus DNA

    Blümchenketten-Rotaxane als molekulare Führungslager

  • Neu entdeckter Schalter in der Zelle unterstützt globale Umprogrammierung der Genexpression

    Der Mechanismus zur Steuerung des globalen Abbaus von mRNA

    Steuerung des globalen Abbaus von mRNA durch Acetylierung von RNA-abbauenden Enzymen

  • New treatment approach for leukemia renders cancer genes powerless

    Microscopic view of blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia. © Public Health Image Library

    Cancer researcher from Mainz develops targeted epigenetic approach for the treatment of aggressive forms of leukemia

  • Novel mechanism to steer cell identities gives clue on how organisms develop

    Luisa Cochella and Model organism C.elegans IMP/Beck

    Scientists discovered a new way in which microRNAs can determine the fate of cells in the course of their development. This could be a key to understanding how complex organisms are built, say researchers from the Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) in Vienna.