A transistor is similar to a switch, which controls the flow of an electric current, but it doesn’t have any mechanical parts nor requires human interaction. A transistor is made out of N-type and P-type semiconductors, such as Silicon, Phosphorous and Boron. The N-type semiconductors are in contact on one side with the Source and on the other side Drain. The P-type semiconductors sit between the N-type semiconductors. To transfer the electrons from Source to Drain, a Gate contacts both N and P type semiconductors. By applying Voltage to the Gate, the electrons flow from the N-type semiconductors at either side, to the P-Type semiconductors and start accumulating there, creating a conductive channel from Source to Drain.

According to Moore’s Law, a transistor nowadays may not be bigger than 10nanometers wide. Transistors can be applied in mobiles, computers, TV’s and many more electronic devices.

  • IHP presents the fastest silicon-based transistor in the world

    The cross section shows a SiGe HBT of the latest generation, recorded by a TEM. The measurement curves are used to determine the transit frequency and the maximum oscillation frequency. © IHP 2016

    Frankfurt (Oder)/San Francisco. Scientist Dr. Bernd Heinemann of IHP – Innovations for High Performance Microelectronics will present results on silicon-germanium heterobipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) developed in Frankfurt (Oder) on the “International Electron Devices Meeting” (IEDM) in San Francisco. His contribution titled “SiGe HBT with fT/fmax of 505 GHz/720 GHz “ presents speed parameters that set new standards for silicon transistors. “To present at IEDM is a valuable conclusion of the project ‘DOTSEVEN’, funded by the European Union. Together with Infineon and twelve other project partners from a total of six countries, the four-year project focused on developing SiGe HBTs with a maximum oscillation frequency, which is also referred to as fmax, of 0.7 THz,” says Dr. Bernd Heinemann, project manager at IHP.

  • Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

    Mapping electromagnetic waveforms | A three-dimensional depiction of the spatial variation of the optical electromagnetic field around a microantenna following excitation with terahertz pulse. The optical field is mapped with the aid of electron pulses. Graphic: Dr. Peter Baum

    Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second. With this new microscope researchers will be able to obtain fundamental insights of how transistors or optoelectronic switches operate at the microscopic level.